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Response of Grafted Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to Herbicides

  • Sushila Chaudhari (a1), Katherine M. Jennings (a1), David W. Monks (a1), David L. Jordan (a2), Christopher C. Gunter (a1) and Frank J. Louws (a3)...

Abstract

Tomato grafting has gained increased attention in the United States as an alternative to methyl bromide to control soilborne pests and diseases. Although several herbicides are registered in tomato production, a lack of information exists on the effect of herbicides on grafted tomato. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to determine herbicide tolerance of grafted tomato. In greenhouse experiments, halosulfuron (27, 54, and 108 g ai ha−1), metribuzin (280, 560, and 1,120 g ai ha−1), and S-metolachlor (1,070, 2,140, and 3,200 g ai ha−1) were applied posttransplant to nongrafted ‘Amelia' and Amelia scion grafted onto ‘Maxifort' or ‘RST-04-106-T' tomato rootstocks. Although herbicide injury was observed, no differences were observed in grafted and nongrafted tomato response including visible injury assessments, plant height, and fresh weight. Tomato injury at 3 wk after herbicide application increased from 3 to 12, 1 to 87, and 0 to 37% as rate of halosulfuron, metribuzin, and S-metolachlor increased, respectively. In field experiments under plasticulture, herbicides applied pretransplant included fomesafen (280 and 420 g ai ha−1), halosulfuron (39 and 54 g ha−1), metribuzin (280 and 560 g ha−1), napropamide (1,120 and 2,240 g ha−1), S-metolachlor (800 and 1,070 g ha−1), and trifluralin (560 and 840 g ai ha−1). Amelia was used as the scion and the nongrafted control. ‘Anchor-T', ‘Beaufort', or Maxifort tomato were used as rootstocks for grafted plants. Fomesafen, halosulfuron, napropamide, and trifluralin initially caused greater injury to grafted tomato than to nongrafted tomato regardless of rootstock (Anchor-T, Beaufort, or Maxifort). However, by 4 wk after treatment, all grafted and nongrafted plants had recovered from herbicide injury. A transplant type-by-herbicide interaction was not observed for yield, but grafted A-Maxifort tomato produced greater total and marketable yield than nongrafted Amelia tomato. Grafted tomato exhibited similar tolerance as nongrafted tomato for all herbicides applied post- and pretransplant.

El uso de injertos en tomate ha ganado atención en los Estados Unidos como una alternativa a methyl bromide para el control de enfermedades y plagas de suelo. Aunque varios herbicidas han sido registrados en la producción de tomate, existe una falta de información sobre el efecto de herbicidas en tomate injertado. Se realizaron experimentos de campo y de invernadero para determinar la tolerancia de tomate injertado a los herbicidas. En los experimentos de invernadero, se aplicó halosulfuron (27, 54, y 108 g ai ha−1), metribuzin (280, 560, and 1,120 g ai ha−1), y S-metolachlor (1,070, 2,140, and 3,200 g ai ha−1) después del trasplante del tomate ‘Amelia' sin injerto y Amelia injertado sobre un patrón 'Maxifort' o un patrón ‘RST-04-106-T'. Aunque se observó daño del herbicida, no se observaron diferencias entre el tomate injertado y sin injertar en daño visible, altura y peso fresco de planta. El daño en el tomate, a 3 semanas después de la aplicación del herbicida, aumentó de 3 a 12, 1 a 87, y 0 a 37% al incrementarse la dosis de halosulfuron, metribuzin, y S-metolachlor, respectivamente. En los experimentos de campo con cobertura plástica, los herbicidas aplicados antes del trasplante incluyeron fomesafen (280 y 420 g ai ha−1), halosulfuron (39 y 54 g ha−1), metribuzin (280 y 560 g ha−1), napropamide (1,120 y 2,240 g ha−1), S-metolachlor (800 y 1,070 g ha−1), y trifluralin (560 y 840 g ai ha−1). Se usó Amelia como injerto y como testigo sin injertar. Los patrones que se usaron para los injertos del tomate fueron ‘Anchor-T', ‘Beaufort', o Maxifort. Fomesafen, halosulfuron, napropamide, y trifluralin inicialmente causaron más daño al tomate injertado que al tomate sin injertar, sin importar el patrón (Anchor-T, Beaufort, o Maxifort). Sin embargo, a 4 semanas después del tratamiento, todas las plantas injertadas y sin injertar se habían recuperado del daño del herbicida. No se observó una interacción entre el tipo de trasplante y el herbicida para el rendimiento, pero el tomate injertado sobre el patrón Maxifort produjo une rendimiento total y comercializable mayor al del tomate Amelia sin injertar. El tomate injertado mostró una tolerancia similar al tomate sin injertar para todos los tratamientos de herbicidas aplicados post- y pre-trasplante.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: schaudh@ncsu.edu.

References

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