Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of Tillage on Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Emergence Pattern in Nebraska

  • Ethann R. Barnes (a1), Rodrigo Werle (a2), Lowell D. Sandell (a1), John L. Lindquist (a1), Stevan Z. Knezevic (a3), Peter H. Sikkema (a4) and Amit J. Jhala (a1)...


Spring tillage is a component of an integrated weed management strategy for control of early emerging glyphosate-resistant weeds such as common ragweed; however, the effect of tillage on common ragweed emergence pattern is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether spring tillage during emergence would influence the emergence pattern or stimulate additional emergence of common ragweed and to characterize common ragweed emergence in southeast Nebraska. A field experiment was conducted for three years (2014 to 2016) in Gage County, Nebraska in a field naturally infested with glyphosate-resistant common ragweed. Treatments consisted of a no-tillage control and three spring tillage timings. The Soil Temperature and Moisture Model (STM2) software was used to estimate soil temperature and moisture at a 2-cm depth. The Weibull function was fit to total common ragweed emergence (%) with day of year (DOY), thermal time, and hydrothermal time as independent variables. Tillage treatments and year had no effect on total common ragweed emergence (P=0.88 and 0.35, respectively) and time to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% emergence (P=0.31). However, emergence pattern was affected by year (P=<0.001) with 50% total emergence reached on May 5 in 2014, April 20 in 2015, and April 2 in 2016 and 90% total emergence reached on May 12, 2014, May 8, 2015, and April 30, 2016. According to the corrected information-theoretic model comparison criterion (AICc), the Weibull function with thermal time and base temperature of 3 C best explained the emergence pattern over three years. This study concludes that spring tillage does not stimulate additional emergence; therefore, after the majority of the common ragweed has emerged and before the crop has been planted, tillage could be used as an effective component of an integrated glyphosate-resistant common ragweed management program in Nebraska.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author’s E-mail:


Hide All

Current address of third author: Valent U.S.A. Corporation, Lincoln, NE.

Associate Editor for this paper: Ramon G. Leon, University of Florida



Hide All
Anderson, DR (2008) Model based inference in the life sciences: primer on evidence. New York: Springer. 184 p
Bassett, IJ, Crompton, CW (1975) The biology of Canadian weeds. 11. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and A. pslostachya DC. Can J Plant Sci 55:463476
Bazzaz, FA (1970) Secondary dormancy in the seeds of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia . J Torrey Bot Soc 97:302305
Beckie, HJ (2011) Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate. Pest Manag Sci 67:10371048
Bradford, KJ (2002) Application of hydrothermal time to quantifying and modeling seed germination and dormancy. Weed Sci 50:248260
Bridges, DC, Wu, H, Sharpe, PJH, Chandler, JM (1989) Modeling distributions of crop and weed seed germination time. Weed Sci 37:724729
Bullied, JW, Marginet, AM, Van Acker, RC (2003) Conventional- and conservation-tillage systems influence emergence periodicity of annual weed species in canola. Weed Sci 51:886897
Burnside, OC (1996) The history of 2,4-D and its impact on the development of the discipline of weed science in the United States. Pages 515 in Burnside OC, ed. Biologic and Economic Assessment of Benefits from Use of Phenoxy Herbicides in the United States. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture NAPIAP Rep. 1-PA-96
Coble, HD, Williams, FM, Ritter, RL (1981) Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 29:339342
Clewis, SB, Askew, SD, Wilcut, JW (2001) Common ragweed interference in peanut. Weed Sci 49:768772
Crawley, MJ (2007) The R Book. West Sussex, UK: J. Wiley. 942 p
Dickerson, CT Jr, Sweet, RD (1971) Common ragweed ecotypes. Weed Sci 19:6466
Forcella, F, Benech-Arnold, RL, Sanchez, RE, Ghersa, CM (2000) Modeling seedling emergence. Field Crop Res 67:123139
Ganie, Z, Jhala, AJ (2017) Confirmation of glyphosate-resistant common ragweed (Abrosia artemisiifolia) in Nebraska and response to POST corn and soybean herbicides. Weed Technol 31:225237
Ganie, ZA, Lindquist, J, Jugulam, M, Kruger, GR, Marx, DB, Jhala, AJ (2017) An integrated approach to control glyphosate-resistant Ambrosia trifida L with tillage and herbicides in glyphosate-resistant maize. Weed Res 57:112122
Ganie, ZA, Sandell, LD, Jugulam, M, Kruger, GR, Marx, DB, Jhala, AJ (2016) Integrated management of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) with tillage and herbicides in soybean. Weed Technol 30:4556
Givens, WA, Shaw, DR, Kruger, GR, Johnson, WG, Weller, SC, Young, BG, Wilson, RG, Owen, MDK, Jordan, D (2009) Survey of tillage trends following the adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol 23:150155
Grundy, AC (2003) Predicting weed emergence: a review of approaches and future challenges. Weed Res 43:111
Gummerson, RJ (1986) The effect of constant temperatures and osmotic potential on the germination of sugar beet. J Exp Bot 41:14311439
Heap, I (2016) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed October 14, 2016
Jordan, T, Nice, G, Smeda, R, Sprague, C, Loux, M, Johnson, B (2007) Biology and management of common ragweed. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Extension Publication GWC-14
Kaur, S, Werle, R, Sandell, L, Jhala, AJ (2016) Spring-tillage has no effect on the emergence pattern of glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) in Nebraska. Can J Plant Sci 96:726729
Leblanc, ML, Cloutier, DC (2002) Optimisation of cultivation timing by using a weed emergence model. Pages 1416 in Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Physical Weed Control. Pisa, Italy: European Weed Research Society
Leon, RG, Owen, MDK (2006) Tillage systems and seed dormancy effects on common waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) seedling emergence. Weed Sci 54:10371044
Mayer, DG, Butler, DG (1993) Statistical validation. Ecol Model 68:2132
Mulugeta, D, Stoltenberg, DE (1997) Increased weed emergence and seed bank depletion by soil disturbance in a no-tillage system. Weed Sci 45:234241
Norsworthy, JK, Oliveira, MJ (2007) Effect of tillage and soyabean on Ipomoea lacuosa and Senna obtusifolia emergence. Weed Res 47:499508
Pollard, JM (2007) Identification and Characterization of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). MS Thesis. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri
Powles, SB (2008) Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt. Pest Manag Sci 64:360365
R Core Team (2014) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Regnier, EE, Harrison, SK, Loux, MM, Hollowman, C, Ventatesh, R, Diekmann, F, Taylor, R, Ford, RA, Stoltenberg, DE, Hartzler, RG, Davis, AS, Schutte, BJ, Cardina, J, Mahoney, KJ, Johnson, WG (2016) Certified crop advisors’ perceptions of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) distribution, herbicide resistance, and management in the corn belt. Weed Sci 64:361377
Roman, ES, Murphy, SD, Swanton, CJ (2000) Simulation of Chenopodium album seedling emergence. Weed Sci 48:217224
Sbatella, GM, Wilson, RG (2010) Isoxaflutole shifts kochia (Kochia scoparia) populations in continuous corn. Weed Technol 24:392396
Schutte, BJ, Regnier, EE, Harrison, SK (2012) Seed dormancy and adaptive seedling emergence timing in giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida). Weed Sci 60:1926
Shaner, DL (2014) Lessons learned from the history of herbicide resistance. Weed Sci 62:427431
Shrestha, A, Roman, ES, Thomas, AG, Swanton, CJ (1999) Modeling germination and shoot-radicle elongation of Ambrosia artemisiifolia . Weed Sci 47:557562
Spokas, K, Forcella, F (2009) Software tools for weed seed germination modeling. Weed Sci 57:216227
[USDA] US Department of Agriculture (2010) Field Crops Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates. Washington, DC: National Agricultural Statistics Service Agricultural Handbook 628. 51 p
Van Wely, AC, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Hooker, DC, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2014) Control of glyphosate and acetolactate synthase resistant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in soybean (Glycine max L.) with preplant herbicides. Am J Plant Sci 5:39343942
Van Wely, AC, Soltani, N, Robinson, DE, Hooker, DC, Lawton, MB, Sikkema, PH (2015) Glyphosate-resistant common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) control with postemergence herbicides and glyphosate dose response in soybean in Ontario. Weed Technol 29:380389
Werle, R, Bernards, ML, Arkebauer, TJ, Lindquist, JL (2014b) Environmental triggers of winter annual weed emergence in the Midwestern United States. Weed Sci. 62:8396
Werle, R, Sandell, LD, Buhler, DD, Hartzler, RG, Lindquist, JL (2014a) Predicting emergence of 23 summer annual weed species. Weed Sci 62:267279
Willemsen, RW (1975a) Dormancy and germination of common ragweed seeds in the field. Am J Bot 62:639643
Willemsen, RW (1975b) Effect of stratification temperature and germination temperature on germination and the induction of secondary dormancy in common ragweed seeds. Am J Bot 62:15
Willemsen, RW, Rice, EL (1972) Mechanism of seed dormancy in Ambrosia artemisiifolia . Am J Bot 59:248257
Wortman, SE, Davis, AS, Schutte, BJ, Lindquist, JL, Cardina, J, Felix, J, Sprague, CL, Dille, AJ, Ramirez, AHM, Reicks, G, Clay, SA (2012) Local conditions, not regional gradients, drive demographic variation of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) and common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) across northern U.S. maize belt. Weed Sci 60:440450


Influence of Tillage on Common Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) Emergence Pattern in Nebraska

  • Ethann R. Barnes (a1), Rodrigo Werle (a2), Lowell D. Sandell (a1), John L. Lindquist (a1), Stevan Z. Knezevic (a3), Peter H. Sikkema (a4) and Amit J. Jhala (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed