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Influence of Application Timings and Sublethal Rates of Synthetic Auxin Herbicides on Soybean

  • Craig B. Solomon (a1) and Kevin W. Bradley (a1)

Abstract

Synthetic auxin herbicides have long been utilized for the selective control of broadleaf weeds in a variety of crop and noncrop environments. Recently, two agrochemical companies have begun to develop soybean with resistance to 2,4-D and dicamba which might lead to an increase in the application of these herbicides in soybean production areas in the near future. Additionally, little research has been published pertaining to the effects of a newly-discovered synthetic auxin herbicide, aminocyclopyrachlor, on soybean phytotoxicity. Two field trials were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of sublethal rates of 2,4-D amine, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, clopyralid, dicamba, fluroxypyr, picloram, and triclopyr on visible estimates of soybean injury, height reduction, maturity, yield, and yield components. Each of these herbicides was applied to soybean at the V3 and R2 stages of growth at 0.028, 0.28, 2.8, and 28 g ae ha−1. Greater height reductions occurred with all herbicides, except 2,4-D amine and triclopyr when applied at the V3 compared to the R2 stage of growth. Greater soybean yield loss occurred with all herbicides except 2,4-D amine when applied at the R2 compared to the V3 stage of growth. The only herbicide applied that resulted in no yield loss at either stage was 2,4-D amine. When applied at 28 g ae ha−1 at the V3 stage of growth, the general order of herbicide-induced yield reductions to soybean from greatest to least was aminopyralid > aminocyclopyrachlor = clopyralid = picloram > fluroxypyr > triclopyr > dicamba > 2,4-D amine. At the R2 stage of growth, the general order of herbicide-induced yield reductions from greatest to least was aminopyralid > aminocyclopyrachlor = picloram > clopyralid > dicamba > fluroxypyr = triclopyr > 2,4-D amine. Yield reductions appeared to be more correlated with seeds per pod than to pods per plant and seed weight. An 18- to 26-d delay in soybean maturity also occurred with R2 applications of all synthetic auxin herbicides at 28 g ae ha−1 except 2,4-D. Results from this research indicate that there are vast differences in the relative phytotoxicity of these synthetic auxin herbicides to soybean, and that the timing of the synthetic auxin herbicide exposure will have a significant impact on the severity of soybean height and/or yield reductions.

Los herbicidas auxinas-sintéticas han sido utilizados por un largo tiempo para el control selectivo de malezas de hoja ancha en una variedad de situaciones con y sin cultivos. Recientemente, dos compañías de agroquímicos iniciaron el desarrollo de soya con resistencia a 2,4-D y dicamba, lo que podría llevar a un incremento en la aplicación de estos herbicidas en zonas productoras de soya en un futuro cercano. Adicionalmente, pocas investigaciones han sido publicadas en relación a los efectos de aminocyclopyrachlor, un herbicida auxina-sintética recientemente descubierto, sobre la fitotoxicidad en soya. Se realizaron dos experimentos de campo en 2011 y 2012 para evaluar los efectos de dosis subletales de 2,4-D amine, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, clopyralid, dicamba, fluroxypyr, picloram, y triclopyr sobre los estimados visuales de daño en soya, la reducción en la altura, la madurez, el rendimiento, y los componentes de rendimiento. Cada uno de estos herbicidas fue aplicado a soya en los estadios de desarrollo V3 y R2 a 0.028, 0.28, 2.8, y 28 g ae ha−1. Las mayores reducciones en altura ocurrieron con todos los herbicidas, excepto 2,4-D amine y triclopyr cuando se aplicó en el estadio de desarrollo V3 en comparación con R2. Las mayores pérdidas en el rendimiento de la soya ocurrieron con todos los herbicidas excepto 2,4-D amine cuando se aplicó en el estadio R2 en comparación con V3. El único herbicida aplicado que no resultó en pérdidas de rendimiento en ninguno de los estadios de desarrollo fue 2,4-D amine. Cuando se aplicó a 28 g ae ha−1 en el estadio V3, el orden general de mayor a menor, de reducciones en el rendimiento de la soya inducidas por el herbicida fue: aminopyralid > aminocyclopyrachlor = clopyralid = picloram > fluroxypyr > triclopyr > dicamba > 2,4-D amine. En el estadio de desarrollo R2, el orden general, de mayor a menor, de reducciones en el rendimiento de la soya inducidas por el herbicida fue: aminopyralid > aminocyclopyrachlor = picloram > clopyralid > dicamba > fluroxypyr = triclopyr > 2,4-D amine. Las reducciones en el rendimiento parecieron estar más correlacionadas con el número de semillas por vaina que el número de vainas por planta o el peso de la semilla. Un retraso de 18 a 26 d en la madurez de la soya también ocurrió con aplicaciones en R2 de todos los herbicidas auxinas-sintéticas a 28 g ae ha−1 excepto 2,4-D. Los resultados de esta investigación indican que existen amplias diferencias en la fitotoxicidad relativa de esos herbicidas auxinas-sintéticas en soya, y que el momento de exposición a estos herbicidas tendrá un impacto significativo en la severidad de las reducciones en altura y/o rendimiento de la soya.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: BradleyKe@missouri.edu.

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Keywords

Influence of Application Timings and Sublethal Rates of Synthetic Auxin Herbicides on Soybean

  • Craig B. Solomon (a1) and Kevin W. Bradley (a1)

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