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The Impact of Spray Droplet Size on the Efficacy of 2,4-D, Atrazine, Chlorimuron-Methyl, Dicamba, Glufosinate, and Saflufenacil

  • Cody F. Creech (a1), Jesaelen G. Moraes (a2), Ryan S. Henry (a3), Joe D. Luck (a4) and Greg R. Kruger (a3)...

Abstract

Herbicide applications often do not reach their full potential because only a small amount of the active ingredients reaches the intended targets. Selecting the appropriate application parameters and equipment can allow for improved efficacy. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of droplet size on efficacy of six commonly used herbicides. Atrazine (1.12 kg ai ha−1), cloransulam-methyl (0.18 g ai ha−1), dicamba (0.14 kg ae ha−1), glufosinate (0.59 kg ai ha−1), saflufenacil (12.48 g ai ha−1), and 2,4-D (0.20 kg ae ha−1) were applied to seven plant species using an XR11003 nozzle at 138, 276, and 414 kPa and a AI11003 nozzle at 207, 345, and 483 kPa. Each herbicide, nozzle, and pressure combination was evaluated for droplet size spectra. Treatments were applied at 131 L ha−1 to common lambsquarters, common sunflower, shattercane, soybean, tomato, velvetleaf, and volunteer corn. Control from 2,4-D was observed to increase approximately 12% on average for all species except common lambsquarters as droplet size increased from medium to very coarse (D v0.5 303 to 462 μm; D v0.5 is droplet size such that 50% of spray volume is contained in droplets of equal or smaller size). Control with atrazine was near 95% for common lambsquarters, common sunflower, and soybean. Atrazine provided the greatest shattercane control using a medium (D v0.5 325 μm) droplet, whereas the same droplet size provided the lowest tomato control. Control of common lambsquarters, shattercane, and tomato with cloransulam-methyl increased 79% when decreasing droplet size from extremely coarse to fine (D v0.5 637 to 228 μm). Dicamba control of common lambsquarters increased 17% using a medium droplet compared with a fine droplet (D v0.5 279 to 204 μm). Dry weight of common sunflower and soybean was reduced 21% using dicamba when using a very coarse spray compared with a fine spray classification (D v0.5 491 to 204 μm). Common lambsquarters control using glufosinate increased 18% using a fine spray classification (D v0.5 186 μm) compared with medium (D v0.5 250 μm) and both very coarse droplet sizes (D v0.5 470 and 516 μm). Conversely, tomato and velvetleaf control with glufosinate was maximized using a very coarse (D v0.5 470 and 516 μm) or extremely coarse droplet (D v0.5 628 μm) with increases of 11 and 25% compared with a fine spray (D v0.5 186 μm). Saflufenacil control of volunteer corn was 38% greater using extremely coarse droplets (D v0.5 622 μm) than fine, medium, and very coarse spray classifications (D v0.5 257 to 514 μm). Overall, spray classifications for the herbicides evaluated play an important role in herbicide efficacy and should be tailored to the herbicide being used and the targeted weed species.

Las aplicaciones de herbicidas a menudo no alcanzan su máximo potencial porque solamente una pequeña cantidad de los ingredientes activos alcanzan los objetivos deseados. El seleccionar los parámetros de aplicación y equipo apropiados puede permitir una mejora en la eficacia. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto del tamaño de gota sobre la eficacia de seis herbicidas de uso común. Atrazine (1.12 kg ai ha−1), cloransulam-methyl (0.18 g ai ha−1), dicamba (0.14 kg ae ha−1), glufosinate (0.59 kg ai ha−1), saflufenacil (12.48 g ai ha−1), y 2,4-D (0.20 kg ae ha−1) fueron aplicados a siete especies de plantas usando una boquilla XR11003 a 138, 276, y 414 kPa y una boquilla AI11003 a 207, 345, y 483 kPa. Cada herbicida, boquilla, y combinación de presión fue evaluada para determinar el espectro de tamaño de gota. Los tratamientos fueron aplicados a 131 L ha−1 a Chenopodium album, girasol, Sorghum bicolor ssp. arundinaceum, soja, tomate, Abutilon theophrasti, y maíz voluntario. Se observó que el control con 2,4-D aumentó en promedio aproximadamente 12% para todas las especies, excepto para C. album, al aumentarse el tamaño de gota de medio a muy grande (D v0.5 303 a 462 μm; D v0.5 es el tamaño de gota al cual el 50% del volumen de aplicación es contenido en gotas de igual o menor tamaño). El control con atrazine fue cercano al 95% para C. album, girasol, y soja. Atrazine brindó el mayor control de S. bicolor usando gotas de tamaño mediano (D v0.5 325 μm), mientras que el mismo tamaño de gota brindó el menor control de tomate. El control de C. album, S. bicolor, y tomate con cloransulam-methyl aumentó 79% cuando disminuyó el tamaño de gota de extremadamente grande a fino (D v0.5 637 a 228 μm). El control de C. album con dicamba aumentó 17% usando gotas medianas al compararse con gotas finas (D v0.5 279 a 204 μm). El peso seco del girasol y la soja se redujo 21% con dicamba cuando se asperjó con gotas muy grandes al compararse con la clasificación fina (D v0.5 491 a 204 μm). El control de C. album con glufosinate aumentó 18% usando la clasificación fina de aspersión (D v0.5 186 μm) al compararse con los tamaños de gota mediano (D v0.5 250 μm) y las dos clasificaciones muy grande (D v0.5 470 y 516 μm). En cambio, el control del tomate y A. theophrasti con glufosinate fue maximizado al usar gotas de tamaño muy grande (D v0.5 470 y 516 μm) o extremadamente grande (D v0.5 628 μm) con incrementos de 11 y 25% al compararse con la aspersión fina (D v0.5 186 μm). El control de maíz voluntario con saflufenacil fue 38% mayor al usarse gotas extremadamente grandes (D v0.5 622 μm) que con las clasificaciones de aspersión fina, mediana, y muy grande (D v0.5 257 y 514 μm). En general, las clasificaciones de aspersión para los herbicidas evaluados juegan un rol importante en la eficacia del herbicida y deberían ser escogidas según el herbicida a usar y las especies de malezas que se desean controlar.

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Corresponding author's E-mail: gkruger2@unl.edu.

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Associate Editor for this paper: William Johnson, Purdue University.

Footnotes

References

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The Impact of Spray Droplet Size on the Efficacy of 2,4-D, Atrazine, Chlorimuron-Methyl, Dicamba, Glufosinate, and Saflufenacil

  • Cody F. Creech (a1), Jesaelen G. Moraes (a2), Ryan S. Henry (a3), Joe D. Luck (a4) and Greg R. Kruger (a3)...

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