This report updates the incidence of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds across western Canada from the last report covering 2007 to 2011. This third round of preharvest surveys was conducted in Saskatchewan in 2014 and 2015, Manitoba in 2016, and Alberta in 2017, totaling 798 randomly selected cropped fields across 28 million ha. In addition, we screened 1,108 weed seed samples submitted by prairie growers or industry between 2012 and 2016. Of 578 fields where wild oat seed was collected, 398 (69%) had an HR biotype: 62% acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor (WSSA Group 1) resistant, 34% acetolactate synthase inhibitor (Group 2) resistant, and 27% Group 1+2 resistant (vs. 41%, 12%, and 8%, respectively, in the previous second-round surveys from 2007 to 2009). The sharp increase in Group 2 resistance is the result of reliance on this site of action to manage Group 1 resistance and the resultant increased selection pressure. There are no POST options to control Group 1+2–HR wild oat in wheat or barley. The rise of Group 2 resistance in green foxtail (11% of sampled fields) and yellow foxtail (17% of Manitoba fields), which was not detected in the previous survey round, parallels the results for wild oat resistance. Various Group 2–HR populations of broadleaf weeds were confirmed, with cleavers and field pennycress being most abundant. Results of submission-sample testing reflected survey results. Although not included in this study, a postharvest survey in Alberta in 2017 indicated widespread Groups 2, 4 (dicamba), and 9 (glyphosate) resistance in kochia and Group 2 resistance in Russian thistle. These surveys bring greater awareness of HR weeds to growers and land managers at local and regional levels, and highlight the urgency to preserve herbicide susceptibility in our key economic weed species.