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Fall and Early Preplant Application Timing Effects on Persistence and Efficacy of Acetamide Herbicides

  • Daniel C. Parker (a1), F. William Simmons (a2) and Loyd M. Wax (a3)


The persistence and efficacy of acetamide herbicides at application timings from fall to preemergence (PRE) were studied in 1998 and 1999 on mollisols (1.1 to 2.8% organic carbon). Metolachlor, s-metolachlor, acetochlor (as an emulsifiable concentrate [EC] formulation and two encapsulated formulations, capsule suspension [CS] and microencapsulated [ME]), and the combination of flufenacet + metribuzin were evaluated at five application times including late fall, 60 and 30 d early preplant (EPP), preplant incorporated, and PRE. Soil bioassays 180 d after application indicated flufenacet + metribuzin, metolachlor, s-metolachlor, and the acetochlor CS had 62 to 74% giant foxtail control, whereas acetochlor EC and ME had 43 to 46% control. Applications at 60 EPP of metolachlor, s-metolachlor, and acetochlor CS provided 70 to 75% giant foxtail control in greenhouse bioassays, whereas flufenacet + metribuzin, acetochlor ME, and acetochlor EC provided 38 to 57% control. At the 30 EPP timing, metolachlor and acetochlor CS had 80 to 82% control, whereas acetochlor EC provided 46% control, and acetochlor ME, flufenacet + metribuzin, and s-metolachlor had 65 to 74% control. Quantitative soil analysis (0 to 6 cm) 10 d after planting (DAP) indicated metolachlor, s-metolachlor, and acetochlor CS concentrations ranged from 12 to 16% and 32 to 47% of applied herbicide for the fall and PRE application timings, respectively, whereas acetochlor (ME and EC) were from 1 to 3% and 16 to 21% of applied for the fall and PRE application timings, respectively. Bioassay reduction was correlated (R 2 = 0.68) with soil-herbicide concentrations at 10 DAP.


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