Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Evaluating Cover Crops and Herbicides for Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Control in Cotton

  • Matthew S. Wiggins (a1), Robert M. Hayes (a1) and Lawrence E. Steckel (a1)

Abstract

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds, especially GR Palmer amaranth, are very problematic in cotton-producing areas of the midsouthern region of the United States. Growers rely heavily on PRE residual herbicides to control Palmer amaranth since few effective POST options exist. Interest in integrating high-residue cover crops with existing herbicide programs to combat GR weeds has increased. Research was conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Tennessee to evaluate GR Palmer amaranth control when integrating cover crops and PRE residual herbicides. Cereal rye, crimson clover, hairy vetch, winter wheat, and combinations of one grass plus one legume were compared with winter weeds without a cover crop followed by fluometuron or acetochlor applied PRE. Biomass of cover crops was determined prior to termination 3 wk before planting. Combinations of grass and legume cover crops accumulated the most biomass (> 3,500 kg ha−1) but by 28 d after application (DAA) the cereal rye and wheat provided the best Palmer amaranth control. Crimson clover and hairy vetch treatments had the greatest number of Palmer amaranth. These cereal and legume blends reduced Palmer amaranth emergence by half compared to non–cover-treated areas. Fluometuron and acetochlor controlled Palmer amaranth 95 and 89%, respectively, at 14 DAA and 54 and 62%, respectively, at 28 DAA. Cover crops in combination with a PRE herbicide did not adequately control Palmer amaranth.

Malezas resistentes a glyphosate (GR), especialmente Amaranthus palmeri GR, son muy problemáticas en áreas productoras de algodón en el la región sur-media de Estados Unidos. Los productores dependen altamente de herbicidas PRE residuales para el control de A. palmeri, ya que existen pocas opciones POST efectivas. El interés en integrar cultivos de cobertura con alta producción de residuos con programas existentes de herbicidas para combatir malezas GR ha incrementado. Se realizó una investigación en 2013 y 2014 en Tennessee para evaluar el control de A. palmeri GR al integrar cultivos de cobertura y herbicidas PRE residuales. El centeno, Trifolium incarnatum, Vicia villosa, trigo de invierno, y combinaciones de una gramínea con una leguminosa fueron comparados con malezas de invierno sin ningún cultivo de cobertura seguido por fluometuron o acetochlor aplicados PRE. La biomasa de los cultivos de cobertura fue determinada antes de la terminación de estos 3 semanas antes de la siembra. Las combinaciones de gramíneas y cultivos de cobertura de leguminosas acumularon la mayoría de la biomasa (> 3,500 kg ha−1), pero a 28 d después de la aplicación (DAA), el centeno y el trigo brindaron el mejor control de A. palmeri. Los tratamientos de T. incarnatum y V. villosa tuvieron el mayor número de A. palmeri. Las mezclas de estos cereales y leguminosas redujeron la emergencia de A. palmeri a la mitad en comparación con las áreas sin cultivos de cobertura. Fluometuron y acetochlor controlaron A. palmeri 95 y 89%, respectivamente, a 14 DAA, y 54 y 62%, respectivamente, a 28 DAA. Los cultivos de cobertura con un herbicida PRE no controlaron adecuadamente A. palmeri.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: lsteckel@utk.edu.

References

Hide All
Anonymous (2014a) Cotoran 4L Herbicide Product Label. http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld9D1002.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2014
Anonymous (2014b) Warrant Herbicide Label. http://www.cdms.net/LDat/ld9KA007.pdf. Accessed July 31, 2014
Anonymous (2015) Tillage Statistics by Crop in Tennessee. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/Tennessee/Quick_Facts/tillage.pdf. Accessed April 21, 2015
Ateh, CM, Doll, JD (1996) Spring-planted winter rye (Secale cereale) as a living mulch to control weeds in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 10:347353
Bond, JA, Oliver, LR (2006) Comparative growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions. Weed Sci 54:121126
Bond, JA, Oliver, LR, Stephenson, DO IV (2006) Response of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions to glyphosate, fomesafen, and pyrithiobac. Weed Technol 20:885892
Cahoon, CW Jr., York, AC, Jordan, DL, Braswell, LR (2014) Chloroacetamide tank mixes with pyrithiobac in glyphosate and glufosinate herbicide systems. Pages 10581060 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference. New Orleans, LA. National Cotton Council of America
Carmer, SG, Nyquist, WE, Walker, WM (1989) Least significant differences for combined analysis of experiments with two or three-factor treatment designs. Agron J 81:665672
Culpepper, AS, York, AC (1998) Weed management in glyphosate-tolerant cotton. J Cotton Sci 2:174185
Culpepper, AS, York, AC, Roberts, P, Whitaker, JR (2009) Weed control and crop response to glufosinate applied to ‘PHY 485 WRF' cotton. Weed Technol 23:356362
Daniel, JB, Abuye, AO, Alley, MM, Adcock, CW, Maitlans, JC (1999) Winter annual cover crops in a Virginia no-till cotton production system, I: biomass production, ground cover, and nitrogen accumulation. J Cotton Sci 3:7483
Fisk, JW, Hersterman, OB, Shrestha, A, Kells, JJ, Harwood, RR, Squire, JM, Sheaffer, CC (2001) Weed suppression by annual legume cover crops in no-tillage corn. Agron J 93:319325
Horak, MJ, Loughin, TM (2000) Growth analysis of four Amaranthus species. Weed Sci 48:347355
Johnson, WG, Davis, VM, Kruger, GR, Weller, SC (2009) Influence of glyphosate-resistant cropping systems on weed species shifts and glyphosate-resistant weed populations. Eur J Agron 31:162172
Keeley, PE, Carter, CH, Thullen, RJ (1987) Influence of planting date on growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Sci 35:199204
Kichler, JM, Oglethorpe, GA, Culpepper, AS, Rucker, KS (2013) Weed and cotton response to topical applications of liberty plus roundup. Page 1035 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference
Klingaman, TE, Oliver, LR (1994) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 42:523527
Krutz, LJ, Locke, MA, Steinriede, RW Jr. (2009) Interactions of tillage and cover crops on water, sediment, and pre-emergence herbicide loss in glyphosate-resistant cotton: implications for the control of glyphosate-resistant weed biotypes. J Environ Qual 38:487499
MacRae, AW, Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM, Culpepper, AS, Kichler, JM (2013) Cotton yield loss potential in response to length of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference. J Cotton Sci 17:227232
McIntosh, MS (1983) Analysis of combined experiments. Agron J 75:153155
Morgan, GD, Baumann, PA, Chandler, JM (2001) Competitive impact of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) development and yield. Weed Technol 15:408412
Mortensen, DA, Egan, JF, Maxwell, BD, Ryan, MR, Smith, RG (2012) Navigation a critical juncture for sustainable weed management. Bioscience 62:7584
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, G, Griffin, T, Bagavathiannan, M, Gbur, EE (2014) In-field movement of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and its impact on cotton lint yield: evidence supporting a zero-threshold strategy. Weed Sci 62: 237249
Norsworthy, JK, McClelland, M, Griffith, G, Bangarwa, SK, Still, J (2011) Evaluation of cereal and Brassicaceae cover crops in conservation-tillage, enhanced, glyphosate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 25:613
Owen, MDK, Beckie, HJ, Leeson, JY, Norsworthy, JK, Steckel, LE (2014) Integrated pest management and weed management in the US and Canada. Pest Manag Sci 71:357376
Price, AJ, Balkcom, KS, Duzy, LM, Kelton, JA (2012) Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for Amaranthus control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management. Weed Technol 26:490498
Reddy, KN (2001) Effects of cereal and legume cover crop residues on weeds, yield, and net return in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 15:660668
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, LE, Stephenson, DO IV, Eubank, TW, Bond, J, Scott, RC (2013) Adoption of best management practices for herbicide-resistant weeds in midsouthern United States cotton, rice and soybean. Weed Technol 27:788797
Sellers, BA, Smeda, RJ, Johnson, WG, Kendig, JA, Ellersieck, MR (2003) Comparative growth of six Amaranthus species in Missouri. Weed Sci 51:329333
Senseman, SA, ed (2007a) Herbicide Handbook. 9th edn. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 146148
Senseman, SA, ed (2007b) Herbicide Handbook. 9th edn. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 251252
Snipes, CE, Byrd, JD Jr. (1994) The influence of fluometuron and MSMA on cotton yield and fruiting characteristics. Weed Sci 42:210215
Teasdale, JR (1996) Contribution of cover crops to weed management in sustainable agricultural systems. J Prod Agric 9:475479
Teasdale, JR, Mohler, CL (1993) Light transmittance, soil temperature, and soil moisture under residue of hairy vetch and rye. Agron J 85:673680
Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM (2010) A changing weed spectrum in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 58:7379
White, RH, Worsham, AD (1990) Control of legume cover crops in no-till corn (Zea mays) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Technol 4:5762
Wise, AM, Grey, TL, Prostko, EP, Vencill, WK, Webster, TM (2009) Establishing the geographical distribution and level of acetolactate synthase resistance of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions in Georgia. Weed Technol 23:214220

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed