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Effect of Simulated Indaziflam Drift Rates on Various Plant Species

  • Matthew D. Jeffries (a1), Denis J. Mahoney (a1) and Travis W. Gannon (a1)

Abstract

Indaziflam is a PRE herbicide for control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds in numerous settings, including managed roadsides, railroads, and noncroplands. There is a need for new and improved PRE herbicides for herbaceous vegetation management along roadsides; however, off-target crop injury via spray drift is a concern because of the close proximity of roadside applications to the wide array of crops grown throughout the southeastern United States where indaziflam is used. Greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the effect of PRE and POST simulated indaziflam spray drift rates on the growth of cotton, bell pepper, soybean, squash, tobacco, and tomato. Simulated indaziflam spray drift rates were 100, 20, 10, 5, or 2.5% of a 73 g ai ha−1 application rate, whereas other herbicide treatments included for comparative purposes were applied at 10% of a typical North Carolina roadside vegetation management application rate. These included sulfometuron (4 g ai ha−1), aminocyclopyrachlor + metsulfuron (11 + 3.5 g ai ha−1), clopyralid + triclopyr (21 + 63 g ai ha−1), or aminopyralid (12 g ai ha−1). In general, plant growth responses varied among herbicides and application timings. Across all evaluated parameters, indaziflam at the 10% simulated drift rate adversely effected plant growth similarly or less than all other herbicides when applied PRE (squash and tomato), POST (bell pepper and soybean), and PRE or POST (cotton and tobacco). No clear trends were observed regarding indaziflam application timing, as PRE squash and tomato, and POST bell pepper and soybean applications were safer than their respective alternative timing, and no significant differences were detected between timings on cotton or tobacco. Across application timings, plant susceptibility to indaziflam-simulated spray drift rates ranked cotton < tobacco < tomato < squash < pepper < soybean. Finally, it should be noted that the lowest simulated indaziflam drift rate (2.5%) caused greater than 20% root mass reduction on cotton (POST), bell pepper (PRE and POST), soybean (PRE and POST), squash (PRE), and tomato (POST). Although this research supports indaziflam use along roadsides, it still poses an off-target plant injury risk. Future research should evaluate techniques to minimize spray drift from roadside pesticide applications.

Indaziflam es un herbicida PRE para el control de Poa annua y malezas de hoja ancha en numerosas situaciones, incluyendo bordes de caminos, vías de ferrocarriles y áreas no agrícolas. Existe una necesidad de tener herbicidas PRE nuevos y mejorados para el manejo de vegetación herbácea en bordes de caminos. Sin embargo, el daño a cultivos aledaños vía deriva de aspersión causa preocupación debido a la proximidad de las aplicaciones en los bordes de caminos a una gran variedad de cultivos producidos a lo largo del sureste de los Estados Unidos donde se usa indaziflam. Se realizó una investigación en invernaderos para evaluar el efecto de deriva simulada con dosis de indaziflam en PRE y POST sobre algodón, pimentón, soya, calabacín, tabaco, y tomate. Las dosis de deriva simulada de indaziflam fueron 100, 20, 10, 5, ó 2.5% de una dosis de aplicación de 73 g ai ha−1, mientras que otros tratamientos de herbicidas que se incluyeron para fines de comparación fueron aplicados a 10% de la dosis de aplicación típica para el manejo de vegetación en orillas de caminos en North Carolina. Se incluyó sulfometuron (4 g ai ha−1), aminocyclopyrachlor + metsulfuron (11 + 3.5 g ai ha−1), clopyralid + triclopyr (21 + 63 g ai ha−1), o aminopyralid (12 g ai ha−1). En general, las respuestas en el crecimiento vegetal variaron entre herbicidas y momentos de aplicación. En todos los parámetros evaluados, deriva simulada de indaziflam a 10% de la dosis afectó adversamente el crecimiento de las plantas en forma similar o menor que todos los demás herbicidas cuando se aplicó PRE (calabacín y tomate), POST (pimentón y soya), y PRE o POST (algodón y tabaco). No se observaron tendencias claras en relación al momento de aplicación de indaziflam ya que las aplicaciones PRE en calabacín y tomate, y POST en pimentón y soya, fueron tan seguras como sus respectivos momentos de aplicación alternativos, y no se detectaron diferencias significativas entre momentos de aplicación en algodón o tabaco. Al promediar momentos de aplicación, el nivel de susceptibilidad de las plantas a la deriva simulada de indaziflam fue algodón < tabaco < tomate < calabacín < pimentón < soya. Finalmente, debe ser notado que la dosis más baja de deriva simulada de indaziflam (2.5%) causó más de 20% de reducción en la masa de raíces en algodón (POST), pimentón (PRE y POST), soya (PRE y POST), calabacín (PRE), y tomate (POST). Aunque esta investigación sustenta el uso de indaziflam en bordes de caminos, este uso todavía representa un riesgo de daño a cultivos cercanos. Investigaciones futuras deberían evaluar técnicas que minimicen la deriva procedente de aplicaciones de plaguicidas en bordes de caminos.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: mdjeffri@ncsu.edu.

References

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Keywords

Effect of Simulated Indaziflam Drift Rates on Various Plant Species

  • Matthew D. Jeffries (a1), Denis J. Mahoney (a1) and Travis W. Gannon (a1)

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