Skip to main content Accessibility help

Dicamba-Tolerant Soybean Combined Cover Crop to Control Palmer amaranth

  • Garret B. Montgomery (a1), Angela T. McClure (a2), Robert M. Hayes (a3), Forbes R. Walker (a4), Scott A. Senseman (a5) and Lawrence E. Steckel (a3)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.


A study was conducted to evaluate the response of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant (GDT) soybean and weed control from cover crop different termination intervals before and after soybean planting. Cover crop biomass was highest when terminated at planting, decreased with the 7- and 14-d preplant (DPP) and day-after-planting (DAP) timings, and again at the 14 DPP and DAP timings. Glyphosate+dicamba provided total control of cover crops by 21 DAP. Cover crop termination timing did not influence soybean population or yield. Palmer amaranth control at the 21 and 28 d after termination (DAT) was 97% to 99%. Differences in Palmer amaranth control were not detected among herbicide programs or termination intervals at the end of season rating, and all treatments provided ≥97% control. Although differences in Palmer amaranth control were not apparent at the end of the season, the delay in cover crop affected the number of days until 10-cm Palmer amaranth was present. When utilizing a wheat+hairy vetch cover crop in DGT soybeans, producers should delay cover crop termination until 11 to 14 DPP and make at least one POST application of glyphosate+dicamba+an additional herbicide mode of action (MOA) to maximize Palmer amaranth control and soybean yields.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Lawrence E. Steckel, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Tennessee, Jackson, TN 38301. (E-mail:


Hide All
Anonymous (2012) Crop Production and Agricultural Chemical Usage in Field Crops. Agricultural Statistics Board, NASS, and USDA. Accessed: October 18, 2017
Anonymous (2017) Xtendimax Supplemental Label for use on dicamba-tolerant cotton and soybeans. Accessed: August 23, 2017
Ashford, DL, Reeves, DW (2003) Use of a mechanical roller-crimper as an alternative kill method for cover crops. Am J Altern Ag 18:3745
Beckie, HJ (2011) Herbicide-resistant weed management: focus on glyphosate. Pest Manage Sci 67:10371048
Blouin, DC, Webster, EP, Bond, JA (2011) On the analysis of combined experiments. Weed Technol 25:165169
Bond, JA, Oliver, LR (2006) Comparative growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) accessions. Weed Sci 54:121126
Burke, IC, Twozler, SC, Askew, SD, Wilcut, JW, Smith, WD (2005) Weed management systems in glyphosate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 19:422429
Cahoon, CW, York, AC, Jordan, DL, Everman, WJ, Seagroves, RW, Culpepper, AS, Eure, PM (2015) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) management in dicamba-resistant cotton. Weed Technol. 29:758770
Carmer, SG, Nyquist, WE, Walker, WM (1989) Least significant differences in combined analyses of experiments with two- or three-factor treatment designs. Agron J 81:655672
Corbett, JL, Askew, SD, Thomas, WE, Wilcut, JW (2004) Weed efficacy evaluations for bromoxynil, glufosinate, glyphosate, pyrithiobac, and sulfosate. Weed Technol 18:443453
Crow, WD, Steckel, LE, Mueller, TC, Hayes, RM (2016) Management of large, glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in corn. Weed Technol 30:611616
Culpepper, AS (2006) Glyphosate-induced weed shifts. Weed Technol 20:277281
Curran, WS, Wallace, JM, Mirsky, S, Crockett, B (2015) Effectiveness of herbicides for control of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in winter wheat. Weed Technol 29:509518
Davis, AS (2010) Cover-crop roller-crimper contributes to weed management in no-till soybean. Weed Sci 58:300309
Fisk, JW, Hersterman, OB, Shrestha, A, Kells, JJ, Harwood, RR, Squire, JM, Sheaffer, CC (2001) Weed suppression by annual legume cover crops in no-tillage corn. Agron J 93:319325
Heap, I (2016) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed: August 30, 2016
Inman, MD, Jordan, DL, York, AC, Jennings, KM, Monks, DW, Everman, WJ, Bollman, SL, Fowler, JT, Cole, RM, Soteres, JK (2016) Long-term management of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in dicamba-tolerant cotton. Weed Sci 64:161169
Isik, DE, Ngouajio, KM, Mennan, H (2009) Weed suppression in organic pepper (Capiscum annuum L.) with winter cover crops. Crop Prot 28:356363
Kenerson, D (2014) 2014 Tennessee tillage systems. USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Accessed August 15, 2016
Klingaman, TE, Oliver, LR (1994) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 42:523527
McCurdy, JD, McElroy, JS, Flessner, ML (2013) Differential response to four Trifolium species to common broadleaf herbicides: implications for mixed grass–legume swards. Weed Technol 27:123128
Merchant, RM, Sosnoskie, LM, Culpepper, AS, Steckel, LE, York, AC, Braxton, LB, Ford, JC (2013) Weed response to 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, and dicamba applied alone or with glufosinate. J Cotton Sci 17:212218
Miller, MR, Norsworthy, JK (2016) Evaluation of herbicide programs for use in a 2,4-D-resistant soybean technology for control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Technol 30:366376
Mirsky, SB, Curran, WS, Mortensen, DA, Ryan, MR, Shumway, DL (2009) Control of cereal rye with a roller/crimper as influenced by cover crop phenology. Agron J 101:15891596
Mirsky, SB, Ryan, MR, Teasdale, JR, Curran, WS, Reberg-Horton, CS, Spargo, JT, Wells, MS, Keene, CL, Moyer, JW (2013) Overcoming weed management challenges in cover crop–based organic rotational no-till soybean production in the eastern United States. Weed Technol 27:193203
Mueller, TC, Wright, DR, Remund, KM (2013) Effect of formulation and application time of day on detecting dicamba in the air under field conditions. Weed Sci 61:586593
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, GM, Scott, RC, Smith, KL, Oliver, LR (2008) Confirmation and control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Arkansas. Weed Technol 22:108113
Norsworthy, JK, McClelland, M, Griffith, G, Bangarwa, SK, Still, J (2010) Evaluation of legume cover crops and weed control programs in conservation-tillage, enhanced glyphosate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 24:269274
Norsworthy, JK, McClelland, M, Griffith, G, Bangarwa, SK, Still, J (2011) Evaluation of cereal and brassicaceae cover crops in conservation-tillage enhanced, glyphosate-resistant cotton. Weed Technol 25:613
Norsworthy, JK, Ward, SM, Shaw, DR, Llewelln, RS, Nichols, RL, Webster, TM, Bradely, KW, Frisvold, G, Powles, SB, Burgos, NR, Witt, WW, Barrett, M (2012) Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Sci 60(sp1): 3162
Price, AJ, Arriaga, FL, Raper, RL, Balkcom, KS, Komecki, TS, Reeves, DW (2009) Comparison of mechanical and chemical winter cereal cover crop termination systems and cotton yield in conservation agriculture. J Cotton Sci 13:238245
Price, AJ, Balkcom, KS, Culpepper, SA, Kelton, JA, Nichols, RL, Schomberg, H (2011) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth: a threat to conservation tillage. J Soil Water Conservation 66:265275
Reddy, KN (2001) Effects of cereal and legume cover crop residues on weeds, yield, and net return in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 15:660668
Reddy, KN, Zablotowicz, RM, Locke, MA, Koger, CH (2003) Cover crop, tillage, and herbicide effects on weeds, soil properties, microbial populations, and soybean yield. Weed Sci 51:987994
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Steckel, LE, Stephenson, SO IV, Eubank, TW, Bond, J, Scott, RC (2013) Adoption of best management practices for herbicide-resistant weeds in the midsouthern United States cotton, rice, and soybean. Weed Technol 27:788797
Ryan, MR, Mirskey, SB, Mortensen, DA, Teasdale, JR, Curran, WS (2011a) Potential synergistic effects on cereal rye biomass and soybean planting density on weed suppression. Weed Sci 59:238246
Ryan, MR, Curran, WS, Grantham, AM, Hunsberger, LK, Mirsky, SB, Mortensen, DA, Nord, EA, Wilson, DO (2011b) Effects of seeding rate and poultry litter on weed suppression from a rolled cereal rye cover crop. Weed Sci 59:438444
Samples, CA, Dodds, DM, Reynolds, DZ, Dixon, TH, Bond, JA, Reynolds, DB, Mills, A (2013) Evaluation of PRE and POST weed control programs for Palmer amaranth control. Page 173 in Proceedings of the 2013 Southern Weed Science Society. Houston, TX: Southern Weed Science Society
Saxton, AM (2013) Design and analysis macro collection version 2.11. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennesee
Shaner, DL ed (2014) Herbicide Handbook. 10th edn. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp 139141
[SARE 2007] Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (2007) Managing cover crops profitably, 3rd edn. College Park, MD: SARE. P 244
[USDA, NASS] United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service (2014) http://www. Accessed September 29, 2016
Van Acker, RC, Swanton, CJ, Weise, SF (1993) The critical period of weed control in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed Sci 41:194200
VanGessel, MJ (2001) Glyphosate-resistant horseweed from Delaware. Weed Sci 49:703705
Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM (2010) A changing weed spectrum in Georgia cotton. Weed Sci 58:7379
White, RH, Worsham, AD (1990) Control of legume cover crops in no-till corn (Zea mays) and cotton (Gossypium hirisutum). Weed Technol 4:5762
Wiggins, MS, Hayes, RM, Steckel, LE (2016b) Evaluating cover crops and herbicides for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in cotton. Weed Technol 30:415422
Wiggins, MS, McClure, MA, Hayes, RM, Steckel, LE (2016a) Integrating cover crops and POST herbicides for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in corn. Weed Technol 29:412418
Wolfe, JC, Neal, JC, Harlow, CD (2016) Selective broadleaf weed control in turfgrass with bioherbicides Phoma macrostoma and Thaxtomin A. Weed Technol 30:688700
Wortman, SE, Francis, CA, Bernards, ML, Drijber, RA, Lindquist, JL (2012) Optimizing cover crop benefits with diverse mixtures and an alternative termination method. Agron J 104:14251435
York, AC, Cahoon, CW, Oliver, GW (2015) Palmer amaranth management with Engenia in BollGard II XtendFlex cotton. Page 174 in Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society. Savannah, GA: Southern Weed Science Society
York, AC, Culpepper, AS, Sosnoskie, LM, Bollman, S (2012) Palmer amaranth management in dicamba/glufosinate tolerant cotton. Page 98 in Proceedings of the Southern Weed Science Society. Charleston, SC: Southern Weed Science Society
Zadoks, JC, Chang, TT, Konzak, CF (1974) A decimal code for growth stages of cereals. Weed Res 14: 415442
Zotarelli, L, Avila, L, Scholberg, MS, Alves, BJR (2009) Benefits of vetch and rye cover crops to sweet corn under no-tillage. Agron J 101:252260


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Dicamba-Tolerant Soybean Combined Cover Crop to Control Palmer amaranth

  • Garret B. Montgomery (a1), Angela T. McClure (a2), Robert M. Hayes (a3), Forbes R. Walker (a4), Scott A. Senseman (a5) and Lawrence E. Steckel (a3)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

A correction has been issued for this article: