Skip to main content Accessibility help

Control of Atrazine-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Double-Crop Grain Sorghum

  • Marshall M. Hay (a1), Jeffrey J. Albers (a2), J. Anita Dille (a3) and Dallas E. Peterson (a4)


Double-crop grain sorghum after winter wheat harvest is a common cropping system in the southern plains region. Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in double-crop grain sorghum in Kansas. Populations resistant to various herbicides (e.g., atrazine, glyphosate, metsulfuron, pyrasulfotole) have made Palmer amaranth management even more difficult for producers. To evaluate control of atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum, we assessed 14 herbicide programs, of which 8 were PRE only and 6 were PRE followed by (fb) POST applications. Visible ratings of Palmer amaranth control were taken at 3 and 8 wk after planting (WAP) grain sorghum. PRE treatments containing very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA)–inhibiting herbicides provided 91% control of atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth 3 WAP, and reduced weed density 8 WAP compared to atrazine-only PRE treatments. PRE fb POST treatments, especially those that included VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides, provided greater control (71% to 93%) of both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth, respectively, at 8 WAP compared to PRE treatments alone (59% to 79%). These results demonstrated the utility of VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides applied PRE and in a layered PRE fb POST approach in controlling atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth, as well as the importance of an effective POST application following residual PRE herbicides for controlling both atrazine-resistant and atrazine-susceptible Palmer amaranth in double-crop grain sorghum.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Marshall M. Hay, Kansas State University, Department of Agronomy, 2004 Throckmorton Plant Science Center, 1712 Claflin Road, Manhattan, KS 66506. (Email:


Hide All

Cite this article: Hay MM, Albers JJ, Dille JA, Peterson DE (2019) Control of atrazine-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in double-crop grain sorghum. Weed Technol 33:115–122. doi: 10.1017/wet.2018.102



Hide All
Anonymous (1999) Brox® 2EC herbicide product label. Albaugh, LLC. Publication No. AD021209A. Ankeny, IA: Albaugh, LLC
Anonymous (2010) Clarity® herbicide product label. BASF Corp. Publication No. 007969-00137.20100927d.NVA 2010-04-065-0154. Research Triangle Park, NC: BASF Corp.
Anonymous (2016) Huskie® herbicide product label. Bayer Crop Science LP. Publication No. 160429G. Research Triangle Park, NC: Bayer Crop Science LP
Arguez, A, Durre, I, Applequist, S, Squires, M, Vose, R, Yin, X, Bilotta, R (2012) NOAA’s U.S. Climate Normals (1981–2010). Daily. Accessed: November 18, 2018
Ball, DF (1964) Loss-on-ignition as an estimate of organic matter and organic carbon in non-calcareous soils. J Soil Sci 15:8492
Beestman, GB, Deming, JM (1974) Dissipation of acetanilide herbicides from soils. Agron J 66:308311
Dieleman, A, Hamill, AS, Fox, GC, Swanton, CJ (1996) Decision rules for postemergence control of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 44:126132
Evans, JA, Tranel, PJ, Hager, AG, Schutte, B, Wu, C, Chatham, LA, Davis, AS (2016) Managing the evolution of herbicide resistance. Pest Manag Sci 72:7480
Godar, AS, Varanasi, VK, Nakka, S, Prasad, PVV, Thompson, CR, Mithila, J (2015) Physiological and molecular mechanisms of differential sensitivity of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) to mesotrione at varying growth temperatures. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0126731.
Gundy, GJ, Hay, MM, Thompson, CR, Dille, A (2018) Effectiveness of pre-emergence applied HPPD herbicides on controlling HPPD-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Page 58 in Proceedings of the 2018 Weed Science Society of America Annual Meeting, Arlington, VA (168). Westminster, CO: Weed Science Society of America
Heap, I (2018) Herbicide resistant weeds in Kansas. Accessed March 29, 2018
Kohrt, JR, Sprague, CL, Nadakuduti, SS, Douches, D (2017) Confirmation of a three-way (glyphosate, ALS, and atrazine) herbicide-resistant population of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Michigan. Weed Sci 65:327338
Legleiter, TR, Bradley, KW, Massey, RE (2009) Glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) control and economic returns with herbicide programs in soybean. Weed Technol 23:5461
Moore, JW, Murray, DS, Westerman, RB (2004) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) effects on the harvest and yield of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Weed Technol 18:2329
Mueller, TC, Mitchell, PD, Young, BG, Culpepper, AS (2005) Proactive versus reactive management of glyphosate-resistant or -tolerant weeds. Weed Technol 19:924933
Mueller, TC, Steckel, LE, Radosevich, M (2010) Effect of soil pH and previous atrazine use history on atrazine degradation in a Tennessee field soil. Weed Sci 58:478483
Mueller, TC, Boswell, BW, Mueller, SS, Steckel, LE (2014) Dissipation of fomesafen, saflufenacil, sulfentrazone, and flumioxazin from a Tennessee soil under field conditions. Weed Sci 62:664671
[NASS] National Agricultural Statistics Service (2018a) Accessed: January 23, 2018
[NASS] National Agricultural Statistics Service (2018b) Accessed: July 16, 2018
Nakka, S, Godar, AS, Thompson, CR, Peterson, DE, Jugulam, M (2017) Rapid detoxification via glutathione S-transferase (GST) conjugation confers a high level of atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Pest Manag Sci 73:22362243
Nalewaja, JD, Adamczewski, KA (1976) Vaporization and uptake of atrazine with additives. Weed Sci 24:217223
Norsworthy, JK, Ward, SM, Shaw, DR, Llewellyn, RS, Nichols, RL, Webster, TM, Bradley, KW, Frisvold, G, Powles, SB, Burgos, NR, Witt, WW, Barrett, M (2012) Reducing the risks of herbicide resistance: best management practices and recommendations. Weed Sci 60 (SP1):3162
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, G, Griffin, T, Bagavathiannan, M, Gbur, EE (2014). In-field movement of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) and its impact on cotton lint yield: evidence supporting a zero-threshold strategy. Weed Sci 62:237249
Pallet, KE, Cramp, SM, Little, JP, Veerasekarean, P, Crudace, AJ, Slater, AE (2001) Isoxaflutole: the background to its discovery and the basis of its herbicidal properties. Pest Manag Sci 57:133142
Peterson, DE (1999) The impact of herbicide-resistant weeds on Kansas agriculture. Weed Technol 13:632635
Reddy, SS, Stahlman, PW, Geier, PW, Thompson, CR, Currie, RS, Schlegel, AJ, Olson, BL, Lally, NG (2013) Weed Technol 27:664670
Rich, CI (1969) Removal of excess salt in cation exchange capacity determinations. Soil Sci 93:8793
Schultz, JL, Myers, DB, Bradley, KW (2015) Influence of soybean seeding rate, row spacing, and herbicide programs on the control of resistant waterhemp in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Weed Technol 29:169176
Shroyer, JP, Thompson, C, Brown, R, Ohlenbusch, PD, Fjell, DL, Staggenborg, S, Duncan, S, Kilgore, GL (1996) Kansas Crop Planting Guide (L-818). Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. 8 p. Accessed: June 16, 2018
Steckel, LE, Sprague, CL, Hager, AG (2002) Common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) control in corn (Zea mays) with single preemergence and sequential applications of residual herbicides. Weed Technol 16:755761
Thompson, CR, Dille, JA, Peterson, DE (2017) Weed competition and management in sorghum, in Ciampitti I, Prasad V, eds., Sorghum, State of the Art and Future Perspectives. Agronomy Monographs 58. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy–Crop Science Society of America–Soil Science Society of America. 10.2134/agronmonogr58.2014.0071
Thompson, CR, Jugulam, M (2015) Very warm temperatures may decrease efficacy of HPPD-inhibitor herbicides. K-State Research and Extension Agronomy eUpdates. Issue 516. Accessed: June 22, 2018
Van Wychen, L (2016) WSSA survey ranks Palmer amaranth as the most troublesome weed in the U.S., Galium as the most troublesome in Canada. Weed Science Society of America Press Release, April 5, 2016.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Control of Atrazine-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Double-Crop Grain Sorghum

  • Marshall M. Hay (a1), Jeffrey J. Albers (a2), J. Anita Dille (a3) and Dallas E. Peterson (a4)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.