Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contrasting Responses of Weed Communities and Crops to 12 Years of tillage and Fertilization Treatments

  • Anne Légère (a1), F. Craig Stevenson (a2) and Noura Ziadi (a3)

Abstract

Minimizing inputs such as fertilizers, herbicides, or tillage may be sought by producers to satisfy economic as well as environmental goals. One of the challenges in reducing inputs, whether synthetic fertilizers or herbicides, or substituting a synthetic nutrient with an organic source, is to identify practices that will provide optimum growing conditions for the crop while maintaining an adequate level of weed control. Our objective was to measure the cumulative effects of 12 yr of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization treatments applied to two tillage systems [conventional tillage (CT) vs. no tillage (NT)] in a corn–soybean rotation on weed communities and crop yields. Residual (postherbicide treatment) weed species assembly was determined by multivariate analysis and was influenced mainly by tillage, with weeds more strongly associated with NT than with CT. Diversity of weed communities as measured by richness, evenness (E), and a diversity index (H′), and total weed biomass were greater for NT than for CT. Nutrient treatments had little or no effect on these parameters. Corn yields were reduced by 70% in the absence of N and by 25% in NT compared to CT treatments. Soybean yields were reduced in NT with increasing P rates compared to other treatments, but reductions never exceeded 10%. Overall, corn and soybean had different responses to treatments, with corn yields being far more affected by fertilization and tillage than soybean yields. Conversely, the absence of tillage had a much greater effect than the absence of nutrient input on weed community assembly and biomass, suggesting the importance of a weed management program specifically tailored for NT systems.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: legerea@agr.gc.ca

References

Hide All
Andreasen, C., Litz, A-S., and Streibig, J. C. 2006. Growth response of six weed species and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) to increasing levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Weed Res. 46:503512.
Barbour, M. G., Burk, J. H., and Pitts, W. D. 1987. Terrestrial Plant Ecology. Menlo Park, CA Benjamin/Cummings. 155181.
Blackshaw, R. E., Brandt, R. N., Janzen, H. H., and Entz, T. 2004a. Weed species response to phosphorus fertilization. Weed Sci. 52:406412.
Blackshaw, R. E., Brandt, R. N., Janzen, H. H., Entz, T., Grant, C. A., and Derksen, D. A. 2003. Differential response of weed species to added nitrogen. Weed Sci. 51:532539.
Blackshaw, R. E., Molnar, L. J., and Janzen, H. H. 2004b. Nitrogen fertilizer timing and application method affect weed growth and competition with spring wheat. Weed Sci. 52:614622.
Blackshaw, R. E., Molnar, L. J., and Larney, F. J. 2005. Fertilizer, manure and compost effects on weed growth and competition with winter wheat in western Canada. Crop Prot. 24:971980.
Blackshaw, R. E., Semach, G., and Janzen, H. H. 2002. Fertilizer application method affects nitrogen uptake in weeds and wheat. Weed Sci. 50:634641.
Boehm, M., Junkins, B., Desjardins, R., Kulshrestha, S., and Lindwall, W. 2004. Sink potential of Canadian agricultural soils. Clim. Change. 65:297314.
Cathcart, R. J. and Swanton, C. J. 2003. Nitrogen management will influence threshold values of green foxtail (Setaria viridis) in corn. Weed Sci. 51:975986.
Clements, D. R., Weise, S. F., and Swanton, C. J. 1994. Integrated weed management and weed species diversity. Phytoprotection. 75:118.
Di Tomaso, J. 1995. Approaches for improving crop competitiveness through the manipulation of fertilization strategies. Weed Sci. 43:491497.
Drinkwater, L. E. and Snapp, S. S. 2007. Nutrients in agroecosystems: rethinking the management paradigm. Adv. Agron. 92:163186.
Dyck, E. and Liebman, M. 1994. Soil fertility management as a factor in weed control: the effect of crimson clover residue, synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, and their interaction on emergence and early growth of lambsquarters and sweet corn. Plant and Soil. 167:227237.
Franzluebbers, F. J., Campbell, J. P. Sr, and Follett, R. F. 2005. Greenhouse gas contributions and mitigation potential in agricultural regions of North America: introduction. Soil Tillage Res. 83:18.
Holland, J. M. 2004. The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: reviewing the evidence. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 103:125.
Johnson, W. G., Ott, E. J., Gibson, K. D., Nielsen, R. L., and Bauman, T. T. 2007. Influence of nitrogen application timing on low density giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) interference in corn. Weed Technol. 21:763767.
Kim, D. S., Marshall, E. J. P., Caseley, J. C., and Brain, P. 2006. Modelling interactions between herbicide and nitrogen fertiliser in terms of weed response. Weed Res. 46:480491.
Légère, A., Simard, R. R., and Lapierre, C. 1994. Response of spring barley and weed communities to lime, phosphorus and tillage. Can. J. Plant Sci. 74:421428.
Légère, A., Stevenson, F. C., and Benoit, D. L. 2005. Diversity and assembly of weed communities: contrasting responses across cropping systems. Weed Res. 45:303315.
Littlel, R. C., Milliken, G. A., Stroup, W. W., and Wolfinger, R. D. 1996. SAS System for Mixed Models. Cary, NC SAS Institute. 656.
Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. 179.
McCloskey, M., Firbank, L. G., Watkinson, A. R., and Webb, D. J. 1996. The dynamics of experimental arable weed communities under different management practices. Veg. Sci. 7:799808.
Meyer-Aurich, A., Weersink, A., Janovicek, K., and Deen, B. 2006. Cost efficient rotation and tillage options to sequester carbon and mitigate GHG emissions from agriculture in eastern Canada. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 117:119127.
Murphy, S. D., Clements, R. D., Belaoussoff, S., Kevan, P. G., and Swanton, C. J. 2006. Promotion of weed species diversity and reduction of weed seedbanks with conservation tillage and crop rotation. Weed Sci. 54:6977.
Nazarko, O. M., Van Acker, R. C., and Entz, M. H. 2005. Strategies and tactics for herbicide reduction in field crops in Canada: a review. Can. J. Plant Sci. 85:457479.
O'Donovan, J. T., McAndrew, D. W., and Thomas, A. G. 1997. Tillage and nitrogen influence on weed population dynamics in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Weed Technol. 11:502509.
Richards, M. C. 1993. The effects of agronomic factors on competition between cereals and weeds. The implications in integrated crop production. in. Brighton Crop Protection Conference—Weeds. 991996.
SAS 1999. The GLIMMIX Procedure, Nov. 2005. Cary, NC SAS. 256.
Smith, R. G. 2006. Timing of tillage is an important filter on the assembly of weed communities. Weed Sci. 54:705712.
Stevenson, F. C., Légère, A., Simard, R. R., Angers, D. A., Pageau, D., and Lafond, J. 1997. Weed species diversity in spring barley varies with crop rotation and tillage but not with nutrient source. Weed Sci. 45:798806.
Stevenson, F. C., Légère, A., Simard, R. R., Angers, D. A., Pageau, D., and Lafond, J. 1998. Manure, tillage, and crop rotation: effects on residual weed interference in spring barley cropping systems. Agron. J. 90:496504.
Swanton, C. J., Booth, B. D., Chandler, K., Clements, D. R., and Shrestha, A. 2006. Management in a modified no-tillage corn–soybean–wheat rotation influences weed population and community dynamics. Weed Sci. 54:4758.
Tremblay, G., Robert, L., Filion, P., Govaerts, G., Mongeau, R., Filiatrault, J., Beausoleil, J. M., Moreau, G., and Tran, T. S. 2003. Régies culturales et fertilisations azotée et phosphatée dans une rotation maïs-soya. Bulletin technique No. 3.05. CEROM, Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Québec, Canada. 8.
Wilhelm, W. W. and Wortmann, C. S. 2004. Tillage and rotation interactions for corn and soybean grain yield as affected by precipitation and air temperature. Agron. J. 96:425432.
Yin, L., Cai, Z., and Zhong, W. 2006. Changes in weed community diversity of maize crops due to long-term fertilization. Crop Prot. 25:910914.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed