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Common Lambsquarters Response to Glyphosate across Environments

  • Evan C. Sivesind (a1), John M. Gaska (a1), Mark R. Jeschke (a1), Chris M. Boerboom (a1) and David E. Stoltenberg (a1)...

Abstract

We conducted a series of field experiments to determine the role of several factors that might contribute to the inconsistent control of common lambsquarters with glyphosate. Experiments in 2006 and 2007 determined common lambsquarters response to glyphosate under a wide range of measured environmental conditions. Glyphosate was applied at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus 3.8 kg ha−1 ammonium sulfate (AMS) to 10-cm-tall plants on 18 dates in each year and to 20-cm-tall plants on 18 dates in 2007. Control was less for six application dates relative to control for 48 other dates. Poor control was attributed to rainfall on one of these six dates, but for the other five dates, regression analysis did not identify any significant relationships between environmental conditions (relative humidity, temperature at time of treatment, or minimum and maximum temperature pre- and posttreatment) and control, even though a wide range of conditions occurred. To determine the effects of plant growth stage on control, glyphosate was applied at 0.1 to 3.2 kg ha−1 plus 3.8 kg ha−1 AMS to 10- and 20-cm-tall plants at four sites. The glyphosate ED50 value (the effective dose that reduced shoot mass by 50% relative to nontreated plants) was 1.9 to 3.0 times greater for 20- than 10-cm-tall plants in three site-years, but was not affected by plant height in one site-year. We also conducted experiments to determine the effect of rainfall on glyphosate efficacy. Across years, common lambsquarters control increased from 44 to 75% as the interval between glyphosate application (0.84 kg ha−1 + 3.8 kg ha−1 AMS) and simulated rainfall increased from 0.5 to 4.0 h, respectively. Our results did not identify environmental conditions that explained reduced glyphosate efficacy in all cases, but they suggest that rainfall after application and plant height can be important factors contributing to the inconsistent control of common lambsquarters.

Realizamos una serie de experimentos de campo para determinar el papel de varios factores que pudieran contribuir a la inconsistencia en el control de Chenopodium album con glifosato. Los experimentos en el 2006 y 2007 determinaron la respuesta de C. album al glifosato bajo un amplio rango de condiciones ambientales. El glifosato fue aplicado a 0.84 kg ea ha−1 más 3.8 kg ha−1 de sulfato de amonio (AMS), a plantas de 10 cm de altura en 18 fechas en cada año y a plantas de 20 cm de altura en 18 fechas en el 2007. El control fue menor para seis fechas de aplicación, en relación al control en las otras 48 fechas. El escaso control se atribuyó a la precipitación en una de estas seis fechas, pero para las otras cinco, un análisis de regresión no identificó ninguna relación significativa entre las condiciones ambientales (humedad relativa, temperatura al momento del tratamiento o la temperatura mínima y máxima pre y post tratamiento) y el control, aunque existió un amplio rango de condiciones. Para determinar los efectos de la etapa de crecimiento de la planta en el control, se aplicó glifosato de 0.1 a 3.2 kg ha−1 más 3.8 kg ha−1 AMS a plantas de 10 y 20 cm de altura en cuatro sitios. El valor ED50 del glifosato, (o sea, la dosis efectiva que redujo la masa de la parte aérea de la planta en un 50% en relación a las plantas no tratadas), fue de 1.9 a 3.0 veces mayor para las plantas de 20 cm de altura que para las de 10 cm en tres sitios-años, pero no fue afectado por la altura de la planta en un sitio-año. También realizamos experimentos para determinar el efecto de la precipitación en la eficacia del glifosato. Promediando los años, el control de C. album se incrementó de 44 a 75% al incrementarse de 0.5 a 4.0 h respectivamente, el intervalo entre la aplicación del glifosato (0.84 kg ha−1 más 3.8 kg ha−1 AMS) y la precipitación simulada. Nuestros resultados no identificaron condiciones ambientales que explicaran la reducción de la eficacia de glifosato en todos los casos, pero sugieren que la precipitación después de la aplicación y la altura de la planta, puedan ser factores importantes que contribuyen al control inconsistente de C. album.

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Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: destolte@wisc.edu

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Current address: Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., 7300 NW 62nd Avenue, P.O. Box 1004, Johnston, IA 50131-1004;

Current address: North Dakota State University Extension Service, Department 7061, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050.

Footnotes

References

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Common Lambsquarters Response to Glyphosate across Environments

  • Evan C. Sivesind (a1), John M. Gaska (a1), Mark R. Jeschke (a1), Chris M. Boerboom (a1) and David E. Stoltenberg (a1)...

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