Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cereal rye cover crop and herbicide application method affect cotton stand, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control, and cotton yield

  • Lavesta C. Hand (a1), Robert L. Nichols (a2), Theodore M. Webster (a3) and A. Stanley Culpepper (a4)

Abstract

Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Lavesta C. Hand, University of Georgia, Coastal Plains Research Station, 2356 Rainwater Road, NESPAL Building, Tifton, GA 31794. (Email: camphand@uga.edu)

References

Hide All
Aulakh, JS, Saini, M, Price, AJ, Faircloth, WH, van Santen, E, Wehtje, GR, Kelton, AJ (2015) Herbicide and rye cover crop residue integration affect weed control and yield in strip-tillage peanut. Peanut Sci 42:3038
Barnes, JP, Putnam, AR (1987) Role of benzoxazinones in allelopathy by rye (Secale cereale L.). J Chem Ecol 13:889906
Burke, IC, Troxler, SC, Wilcut, JW, Smith, WD (2008) Purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) response to postemergence herbicides in cotton. Weed Technol 22:615621
Bushuk, W, ed (1976) Rye: Production, Chemistry, and Technology. St. Paul, MN: American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc. p 22
[CAST] Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2012) Herbicide-Resistant Weeds Threaten Soil Conservation Gains: Finding a Balance for Soil and Farm Sustainability. Issue Paper 49. Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology
Culpepper, AS, Grey, TL, Vencill, WK, Kichler, JM, Webster, TM, Brown, SM, York, AC, Davis, JW, Hanna, WW (2006) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth confirmed in Georgia. Weed Sci 54:620626
Evans, JA, Tranel, PJ, Hager, AG, Schutte, B, Wu, C, Chatham, LA, Davis, AS (2015) Managing the evolution of herbicide resistance. Pest Manag Sci 72:7480
Everman, WJ, Burke, IC, Allen, JR, Collins, J, Wilcut, JW (2007) Weed control and yield with glufosinate-resistant cotton weed management systems. Weed Technol 21:695701
Farmer, JA, Bradley, KW, Young, BG, Steckel, LE, Johnson, WG, Norsworthy, JK, Davis, VM, Loux, MM (2017) Influence of tillage method on management of Amaranthus species in soybean. Weed Technol 31:1020
Flitcroft, I (2015) Georgia Automated Environmental Monitoring Network. Griffin, GA: University of Georgia. http://www.georgiaweather.net. Accessed: October 1, 2018
Gallagher, RS, Cardina, J (1998a) Phytochrome-mediated Amaranthus germination I: effect of seed burial and germination temperature. Weed Sci 46:4852
Gallagher, RS, Cardina, J (1998b) Phytochrome-mediated Amaranthus germination II: development of very low fluence sensitivity. Weed Sci 46:5358
Hasnam (1985) Plant and yield responses to skips in upland cotton. Indones J Crop Sci 1:2942
Keeley, PE, Carter, CH, Thullen, RJ (1987) Influence of planting date on growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Sci 35:199204
Knight, IA, Rains, GC, Culbreath, AK, Toews, MD (2017) Thrips counts and disease incidence in response to reflective particle films and conservation tillage in cotton and peanut cropping systems. Entomol Exp Appl 162:1929
Kornecki, TS (2016) The effects of combined cover crop termination and planting in a cotton no-till system. Appl Eng Agric 32:551560
Kornecki, TS, Raper, RL, Arriaga, FJ, Schwab, EB, Bergtold, JS (2009) Impact of rye rolling direction and different no-till row cleaners on cotton emergence and yield. T ASABE 52:383391
Menalled, FD, Peterson, RKD, Smith, RG, Curran, WS, Paez, DJ, Maxwell, BD (2016) The eco-evolutionary imperative: revisiting weed management in the midst of an herbicide resistance crisis. Sustainability 8:1297
Mirsky, SB, Ryan, MR, Curran, WS, Teasdale, JR, Maul, J, Spargo, JT, Moyer, J, Grantham, AM, Weber, D, Way, TR, Camargo, GG (2012) Conservation tillage issues: cover crop-based organic rotational no-till grain production in the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Renew Agr Food Syst 27:3140
Price, AJ, Balkcom, KS, Duzy, LM, Kelton, JA (2012) Herbicide and cover crop residue integration for Amaranthus control in conservation agriculture cotton and implications for resistance management. Weed Technol 26:490498
Price, AJ, Monks, CD, Culpepper, AS, Duzy, LM, Kelton, JA, Marshall, MW, Steckel, LE, Sosnoskie, LM, Nichols, RL (2016) High-residue cover crops alone or with strategic tillage to manage glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in southeastern cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). J Soil Water Conserv 71:111
Reeves, DW, Price, AJ, Patterson, MG (2005) Evaluation of three winter cereals for weed control in conservation-tillage nontransgenic cotton. Weed Technol 19:731736
Rubin, B (2015) Herbicide-resistance in weeds and crops: interaction and impact on farming sustainability. Page 29 in Proc 25th Asian-Pacific Weed Sci Soc Conf. Hyderabad, India: Indian Society of Weed Science
Sanders, CH, Joseph, DD, Marshall, MW (2017) Efficacy of selected herbicide programs in 2,4-D tolerant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Agric Sci 8:11571167
Shergill, LS, Bish, MD, Jugulam, M, Bradley, KW (2018) Molecular and physiological characterization of six-way resistance in an Amaranthus tuberculatus var.rudis biotype from Missouri. Pest Manag Sci 74:26882698
Teasdale, JR (1996) Contribution of cover crops to weed management in sustainable agriculture systems. J Prod Agric 9:431479
Teasdale, JR, Mohler, CL (1993) Light transmittance, soil temperature, and soil moisture under residue of hairy vetch and rye. Agron J 85:673680
Tehranchian, P, Nandula, V, Jugulam, M, Putta, K, Jasieniuk, M (2018) Multiple resistance to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Italian ryegrass populations from California: confirmation and mechanisms of resistance. Pest Manag Sci 74:868877
Ward, SM, Webster, TM, Steckel, LE (2013) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri): a review. Weed Technol 27:1227
Webster, TM, Simmons, DB, Culpepper, AS, Grey, TL, Bridges, DC, Scully, BT (2016) Factors affecting potential for Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression by winter rye in Georgia, USA. Field Crop Res 192:103109
Westwood, JH, Charudattan, R, Duke, SO, Fennimore, SA, Marrone, P, Slaughter, DC, Swanton, C, Zollinger, R (2018) Weed management in 2050: perspectives on the future of weed science. Weed Sci 66:275285
Whitaker, J, Culpepper, AS, Freeman, M, Harris, G, Kemerait, B, Perry, C, Porter, W, Roberts, P, Shurley, D, Smith, A (2017) 2017 Georgia Cotton Production Guide. Publication No. CSS-17-01 Tifton, GA: University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Pp. 9140
Wiggins, MS, Hayes, RM, Steckel, LE (2016) Evaluating cover crops and herbicides for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in cotton. Weed Technol 30:415422
Wiggins, MS, McClure, MA, Hayes, RM, Steckel, LE (2015) Integrating cover crops and POST herbicides for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) control in corn. Weed Technol 29:412418
Unger, PW, Vigil, MF (1998) Cover crop effects on soil water relationships. J Soil Water Conserv 53:200207
Yu, Q, Powles, S (2014) Metabolism-based herbicide resistance and cross-resistance in crop weeds: a threat to herbicide sustainability and global crop production. Plant Phys 166:11061118

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed