Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-54cdcc668b-rfpnn Total loading time: 0.745 Render date: 2021-03-09T11:21:53.189Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Adusumilli Narayana Rao
Affiliation:
ICRISAT Development Center (IDC) and International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru- 502 324, India
Suhas P. Wani
Affiliation:
IDC, ICRISAT, Patancheru- 502 324, India
Mugalodi Ramesha
Affiliation:
IRRI Rice Breeding Hub, ICRISAT, Patancheru- 502 324, India
Jagdish K. Ladha
Affiliation:
IRRI, India Office, 1st Floor, CG Block, NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi 110 012, India
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Rice is one of the staple food crops of India, and Karnataka is one of the major rice-producing states. The primary method of rice establishment in Karnataka is transplanting, but farmers are opting to shift to direct-seeding of rice. Weed management is critical for realizing optimal yield of direct-seeded rice (DSR). The objective of this review was to synthesize the published literature on weeds and weed management in rice in Karnataka, identify improved weed-management technologies for delivery to farmers, and suggest research needs. Some 98 weed species are reported to be associated with rice in Karnataka. Weed control to date in Karnataka has mostly been based on herbicides. Hand-weeding was found to be effective in all methods of rice establishment. However, it is time-consuming, tedious, and costly because labor is becoming scarce and unavailable, and labor wages are higher. Several PRE and POST herbicides that were effective in other Asian countries were also found to be effective in managing weeds in rice established by different methods in Karnataka. Bensulfuron plus pretilachlor and pyrazosulfuron in aerobic rice and pendimethalin, thiobencarb, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop, fenoxaprop plus chlorimuron plus metsulfuron, and fenoxaprop plus ethoxysulfuron in dry-DSR were found effective in managing weeds. In wet-DSR, butachlor plus safener and pretilachlor plus safener were effective. Thiobencarb, pendimethalin, pretilachlor, azimsulfuron plus metsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, butachlor, cinosulfuron, oxadiazon, and quinclorac were found promising for weed management in transplanted rice. Integration of herbicides with hand-weeding or intercultivation was found to be effective in rice established by different methods. Options that were found economical in managing weeds varied across the different rice-establishment methods. The need for developing location-specific, sustainable, integrated weed management and extension of available technologies for the farming community in Karnataka is emphasized.

El arroz es uno de los alimentos básicos de India, y Karnataka es uno de los estados con mayor producción de arroz. El método primario de establecimiento de arroz en Karnataka es el trasplante, pero los productores están optando por cambiar a la siembra directa del arroz. El manejo de malezas es crítico para alcanzar un rendimiento óptimo en arroz de siembra directa (DSR). El objetivo de esta revisión es sintetizar la literatura publicada acerca de las especies de malezas y el manejo de malezas en arroz en Karnataka, identificar tecnologías que mejoren el manejo de malezas, y sugerir cuáles son las necesidades de investigación. Noventa y ocho especies de malezas están reportadas como asociadas al arroz en Karnataka. Hasta la fecha, el control de malezas en Karnataka se ha basado mayoritariamente en el uso de herbicidas. Se encontró que la deshierba manual es efectiva en todos los métodos de establecimiento del arroz, sin embargo, toma mucho tiempo, es tediosa, y de alto costo porque la mano de obra es escaza o no está disponible del todo, y los salarios son cada vez más altos. También se encontró que varios herbicidas PRE y POST que son efectivos en otros países asiáticos son efectivos en el manejo de malezas en diferentes métodos de establecimiento de arroz en Karnataka. Se encontró que bensulfuron más pretilachlor y pyrazosulfuron en arroz aeróbico, y pendimethalin, thiobencarb, bispyribac-sodium, cyhalofop, fenoxaprop más chlorimuron más metsulfuron, y fenoxaprop más ethoxysulfuron en DSR-en seco fueron efectivos para el manejo de malezas. En DSR-en mojado, butolachlor más antídoto y pretilachlor más antídoto fueron efectivos. Thiobencarb, pendimethalin, pretilachlor, azimsulfuron más metsulfuron, bispyribac-sodium, butachlor, cinosulfuron, oxadiazon, y quinclorac fueron promisorios par el manejo de malezas en arroz trasplantado. La integración de herbicidas con la deshierba manual o el cultivo entre hileras fueron efectivos en arroz establecido con diferentes métodos. Las opciones que fueron económicas para manejar las malezas variaron según el método de establecimiento del arroz. Se hace énfasis en la necesidad de desarrollar y hacer disponibles a la comunidad agrícola en Karnataka, tecnologías para el manejo integrado de malezas que sean sostenibles y específicas para cada localidad.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Acharya, SP, Basavaraja, H, Kunnal, IB, Mahajanashetti, SB, Bhat, ARS (2012) Growth in area, production and productivity of major crops in Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 25:431436 Google Scholar
Agasimani, CA, Goudar, BBC, Raikar, DS (2008) Effect of herbicides on weeds in transplanted rice. J Crop Weed 4:4951 Google Scholar
Angadi, VV, Umapathy, PN (1997) Integrated weed management through smother intercrops in rainfed lowland rice. Int Rice Res Notes 22:4748 Google Scholar
Angadi, VV, Babalad, HB, Umapathy, PN, Radder, GD, Nadaf, SK (1993a) Weed control in upland rice fields of Karnataka. Int Rice Res Notes 18:5051 Google Scholar
Angadi, VV, Umapathy, PN, Nayak, GV, Patil, VC, Chittapur, BM (1993b) Integrated weed management in direct seeded rainfed rice of Karnataka. Pages 69 in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Integrated Weed Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Volume III. Hisar, India: Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Anwarullah, MS (1998). Chemical weed control in rice nurseries of the hill zone of Karnataka. Int Rice Res Notes 23:2728 Google Scholar
Baki, BB, Chin, DV, Mortimer, M, eds (2000) Wild and Weedy Rice in Rice Ecosystems in Asia: A Review. Limited proceedings No. 2. Los Baños, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. 124 pGoogle Scholar
Biradar, DP, Shivakumar, KS, Prakash, SS, Pujar, BT (2006) Bionutrient potentiality of Parthenium hysterophorus and its utility as green manure in rice ecosystem. Karnataka J Agric Sci 19:256263 Google Scholar
Biradar, D, Nagappa, P, Chinnabasavanna, AS (2002) Evaluation of a new acetochlor herbicide on transplanted rice. Karnataka J Agric Sci 15:491496 Google Scholar
Bouman, BAM (2001) Water-efficient management strategies in rice production. Int Rice Res Notes 26:1722 Google Scholar
Chauhan, BS (2012) Weed ecology and weed management strategies for dry-seeded rice in Asia. Weed Technol 26:113 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS (2013) Strategies to manage weedy rice in Asia. Crop Prot 48:5156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Channabasavanna, AS, Setty, RA (1993) Weed management in rice nurseries. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 22:78 Google Scholar
[CSCB] Central Seed Certification Board (2013) Indian Minimum Seed Certification Standards. New Delhi, India: CSCB. 605 pGoogle Scholar
Delouche, JC, Burgos, NR, Gealy, DR, Martín, GZS, Labrada, R (2007) Weedy Rices—Origin, Biology, Ecology and Control. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Plant Production and Protection Paper 188.Google Scholar
Denesh, GR, Prasad, TVR (2012) Influence of weed as green leaf manures on growth, productivity and economics in aerobic rice-rice cropping system. Mysore J Agric Sci 46:671675 Google Scholar
Denesh, GR, Ramachandra, C, Prasad, TVT (2012) Chemical weed control in wet rice nursery. Abstract. Page 49 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
[DRR] Directorate of Rice Research (2011) Production Oriented Survey 2010. Hyderabad, A.P., India: DRR. 166 pGoogle Scholar
[DWSR] Directorate of Weed Science Research (2013) Report of the Quinquennial Review Team on Directorate of Weed Science Research & AICRIP–Weed Control (2006 – March, 2012). Jabalpur 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India: DWSR Google Scholar
[DWSR] Directorate of Weed Science Research (2011) Vision 2030. Maharajpur, Adhartal, Jabalpur 482 004, Madhya Pradesh, India: DWSR Google Scholar
[DWSR] Directorate of Weed Science Research (2010) All India Coordinated Project on Weed Control—Weed Control Recommendation. Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India: DWSR Google Scholar
Gandhi, RV, Rudresh, NS, Shivamurthy, M, Hittalmani, S (2012) Performance and adoption of new aerobic rice variety MAS 946-1 (Sharada) in southern Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 25:58 Google Scholar
Gowda, DKS, Gubbaiah, S (2011) Insect pests of rice and their management in Karnataka state of India: a review. Agric Rev 32:5562 Google Scholar
Gowda, PT, Murthy, KNK, Fathima, PS, Vidya, A (2010) Studies on chemical weed control in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Res (Hisar) 40:2024 Google Scholar
Gowda, PT, Shankaraiah, C, Janesh, AC, Govindappa, M, Murthy, KNK (2009) Studies on chemical weed control in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Crop Weed 5:321324 Google Scholar
Gujja, B, Thiyagarajan, TM (2009) Indian food security? the System of Rice Intensification. Gatekeeper Ser 143:45 Google Scholar
Hanumanthappa, M, Dalavai, BL, Malleshappa, C, Nataraju, MS (2009) Influence of age of seedlings and use of cono-weeder on growth and yield of SRI method paddy. Mysore J Agric Sci 43:173175 Google Scholar
Hanumanthappa, M, Manjunatha, KB, Kalyanamurthy, KN, Naik, KPS (2012) Effect of new herbicide molecules on growth and yield of transplanted rice in coastal Karnataka. Abstract. Page 56 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University. Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Jagadeesha, N, Sheshadri, T, Shet, RM, Gireesh, C, Umesha, MR (2009) Growth and yield of drum seeded rice as influenced by different weed management practices. Environ Ecol 27:898901 Google Scholar
Janardhan, G, Muniyappa, TV (1994a) Economics of some pre-emergence herbicides in transplanted rice. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 22:154156 Google Scholar
Janardhan, G, Muniyappa, TV (1994b) Correlations between weed parameters and yield components in transplanted rice. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 23:161164 Google Scholar
Janardhan, G, Muniyappa, TV, Reddy, VC, Ramachandra, C, Bhaskar, S (1999a) Studies on weed control and crop toxicity ratings of pre-emergence herbicides in transplanted rice. Mysore J Agric Sci 33:333337 Google Scholar
Janardhan, G, Muniyappa, TV, Reddy, VC, Ramachandra, C, Murthy, NK (1999b) Studies on efficacy of pretilachlor in transplanted rice. Mysore J Agric Sci 33:1620 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Bhairappanavar, ST (2002) Chemical weed control in drum seeded rice. Indian J Weed Sci 34:290292 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Nanjappa, HV (1996) Time of herbicide application on weeds and yield of direct-seeded puddled rice. J Agric Sci 30:112116 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Basavarajappa, DN, Bhairappanavar, ST, Denesh, GR, Shivanna, S (2002) Evaluation of new herbicide molecules for weed control in wet rice nursery. Curr Res - Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 31:179181 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Bhairappanavar, ST, Hugar, AY, Rangaswamy, BR, Mallikarjun, GB, Malleshappa, C, Naik, DC (2011a) Integrated weed management in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Agric Sci Digest 31:5861 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Bhairappanavar, ST, Somashekarappa, PR, Hugar, AY, Rangaswamy, BR, Mallikarjun, GB, Naik, DC (2011b) Evaluation of azimsulfuron for weed control in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian J Agric Res 45:239243 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Bhairappanavar, ST, Somashekarappa, PR, Rangaswamy, BR (2009) Efficacy of azimsulfuron for weed control in transplanted rice. Indian J Weed Sci 41:172175 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Denesh, GR, Basavarajappa, DN, Bhairappanavar, ST (2004) Mon 46996 (Butachlor 90% EC) A new herbicide formulation for weed control in transplanted rice. Mysore J Agric Sci 38:480486 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Hugar, AY, Somashekarappa, PR, Malleshappa, C (2010) Efficacy of azimsulfuron in combination with metsulfuron methyl on weed control in transplanted rice. Mysore J Agric Sci 44:246254 Google Scholar
Jayadeva, HM, Nanjappa, HV, Ramachandrappa, BK (1997) Chemical weed control and economics in puddle-seeded rice. Ann Agric Res 18:351356 Google Scholar
Kenchaiah, K, Shekara, BG, Kalyanamurthy, KN, Madhu, SC, Shivashankaramurthy, M (2006) Cinosulfuron A promising new herbicide for weed control in transplanted rice. Indian Agric 50:103105 Google Scholar
Kenchaiah, K, Shekara, BG, Kalyanamurthy, KN, Madhu, SC (2009) Evaluation of clomazone for controlling weeds in wet direct-sown rice. Oryza 46:7879 Google Scholar
Kolhe, SS, Brambri, MC (2005) Utilisation of Parthenium hysterophorus as green manure in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pages 181183 in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Parthenium Management. Bangalore, India University of Agriculture Sciences Google Scholar
Kollurmath, VB, Karnool, NN, Kunnal, B, Basavaraj, H, Kulkarni, V (2008) Cost of production of rice and maize in World Trade Organization era of Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21:241245 Google Scholar
Krishnamurthy, R, Gowda, CR, Murthy, CAS, Prasad, TVR (2005) Parthenium and Chromolaena as compost and green manure in transplanted rice. Pages 193196 in Proceedings of the. 2nd International Conference on Parthenium Management. Bangalore, India University of Agriculture Sciences Google Scholar
Kumar, V, Ladha, JK (2011) Direct-seeded rice: recent developments and future research needs. Adv Agron 111:297413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, MD, Basavaraj, B (1996) Evaluation of anilophos herbicide for transplanted rice. Karnataka J Agric Sci 9:520522 Google Scholar
Kumar, MD, Anwarullah, MS, Shadakshari, YG (2009) Integrated nutrient management in transplanted rice genotypes. India J Environ Ecol 27:10021005 Google Scholar
Kusuma, V (2007). Studies on weed management in aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation. . Bangalore, India: University of Agriculture Science Google Scholar
Madhu, M, Nanjappa, HV (1997) Nutrient uptake by crop and weeds as influenced by weed control treatments in puddled seeded rice. Crop Res (Hisar) 13:16 Google Scholar
Madhu, M, Nanjappa, H, Naik, HR (1996) Economics of weed control treatments in puddled seeded rice. Crop Res (Hisar) 12:133137.Google Scholar
Madhukumar, V, Kalyana Murthy, KN, Sanjay, MT, Ashoka, P, Kumbar, B (2012) Effect of pre and post emergent herbicides on nutrient uptake and yield in aerobic rice [Abstract]. Page 54 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment. Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Mahadevappa, M (1999). Parthenium and its management. Dharwad, Karnataka, India: University of Agricultural Sciences. 132 pGoogle Scholar
Mahadevaswamy, M, Nanjappa, HV (1991) Effect of herbicides on weed control in drill-sown rice (Oryza sativa). Indian J Agron 36(Suppl):247249 Google Scholar
Manjappa, K, Kataraki, NG (2004). Eupatorium An obnoxious weed as green leaf manure in rice cultivation. Karnataka J Agric Sci 17:799800 Google Scholar
Manjunatha, KB, Hanumanthappa, M, Nagesha, , Kalyanamurthy, KN, Kamath, KVS, Jayaprakash, SM (2013) Effect of new herbicide molecules on growth and yield of transplanted rice (Oryza sativa L.) in coastal Karnataka. Mysore J Agric Sci 47:292295 Google Scholar
Manjunatha, MV, Masthana Reddy, BG, Joshi, VR (2009) Performance of rice (Oryza sativa) under different methods of establishment in Tungabhadra canal command, Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 22:11511152 Google Scholar
Masthana Reddy BG, Anand SR, Pujari BT (2012a) Effect of herbicide bispyribac-sodium on rice weeds in nursery. Abstract. Page 95 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University. Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science.Google Scholar
Masthana Reddy BG, Pattar PS, Ravishankar G, Joshi VR (2006). Efficacy of quinclorac in transplanted rice. Indian J Weed Sci 38:2932 Google Scholar
Masthana Reddy BG, Ravishankar G, Balganvi S, Joshi VR, Negalur RK (2012b) Efficacy of bensulfuron methyl plus pretilachlor for controlling weeds in transplanted rice. Oryza 49:6567 Google Scholar
Mishra, JS, Singh, VP (2007). Integrated weed management in zero till direct seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system. Indian J Agron 52:198203 Google Scholar
Munegowda, MK, Jagadish, A, Khan, TA, Gowda, RC, Kumar, NC (1993). Cultural-cum-herbicidal weed management studies in upland drilled rice. Pages 5456 in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Integrated Weed Management for Sustainable Agriculture. Volume III. Hisar, India: Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Munegowda, MK, Nagaraju, AP, Varadaraju, , Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Efficacy of anilophos at different rates and time of application on weed control in transplanted rice. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 19:145146 Google Scholar
Mutanal, SM, Kumar, P, Joshi, VR, Honnannavar, SY (1998) Effect of butachlor for weed control in sprouted direct seeded paddy field under rainfed conditions. Karnataka J Agric Sci 11:487489 Google Scholar
Mutanal, SM, Kumar, P, Joshi, VR, Mannikeri, IM (1997) Time of application of anilophos for effective weed control and crop safety in direct seeded rice. World Weeds 4:169174.Google Scholar
Nagaraju, AP, Kumar, HKM (2009) Effect of herbicides alone and in combination with 2,4-D (EE) on weeds and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Mysore J Agric Sci 43:401405 Google Scholar
Nayak, BR, Manjappa, K (2012). Documentation of existing cultivation practices followed in rice in hill region of Uttara Kannada district. Karnataka J Agric Sci 25:397402 Google Scholar
Pattar, PS, Reddy, BGM, Kuchanur, PH (2005) Evaluation of halo-sulfuron methyl for weed control in puddled direct-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Indian J Agric Sci 75:230231 Google Scholar
Prakash, P, Nanjappa, HV, Ramachandrappa, BK (1995) Chemical weed control in direct seeded puddled rice (Oryza sativa (L.). Crop Res (Hisar) 9:197202 Google Scholar
Prasad, SR, Jagadish, GV, Aswathaiah, B, Reddy, TNV (1991) Quality of paddy seeds used by farmers in Bhadra command area. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 20:2223 Google Scholar
Prasad, TVR, Devendra, R, Narasimha Reddy, MK, Varadaraju, , Krishnamurthy, K (1990) Evaluation of molinate for weed control in drilled upland paddy. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 19:1921.Google Scholar
Prasad, TVR, Kenchaiah, K, Maharudrappa, K, Khan, TA, Krishnamurthy, K (1992) Efficacy, economics and energetics of herbicides in weed management of transplanted rice in agro-climatic zones of Karnataka. Mysore J Agric Sci 26:15 Google Scholar
Prasad, TVR, Sanjay, RMT, Pramod, G, Shubhashree, KS (2012a) Influence of weed management practices under different rice establishment techniques on productivity and economics of rice [Abstract]. Page 58 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University. Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Prasad, TVR, Sanjay, RMT, Shubhashree, KS, Pramod, G (2012b) Efficacy of herbicides for controlling weeds in direct seeded rice. Abstract 55 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University. Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Prasad, VP, Singh, NP (2002) Sedges of Karnataka (India) (Family Cyperaceae). Jodhpur, India: Scientific. 354 pGoogle Scholar
Pujari, BT, Hosamani, MM, Sharma, KMS, Goudreddy, BS, Patil, VC (1989) Response of paddy to nutrient levels and weed management in Upghat region of Karnataka. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 14:189192 Google Scholar
Purushotham, S, Munegowda, MK, Dwarakanath, N, Mohan, SL (1990) Evaluation of new herbicides in transplanted rice. Curr Res Univ Agric Sci (Bangalore) 19:7375 Google Scholar
Rajanna, MP (2013) Recent Rice Varieties and Hybrids of Karnataka. Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mandya, Bangalore, India: University of Agriculture Science Google Scholar
Rajanna, MP (2010) Status Paper on Rice in Karnataka. Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP). Hyderabad, India: Directorate of Rice Research http://rkmp.co.in/sites/default/files/ris/rice-state-wise/Status%20Paper%20on%20Rice%20in%20Karnataka.pdf. Accessed January 14, 2014Google Scholar
Ramachandra, C, Denesh, GR, Ramachandra Prasad, TV (2012a) Chemical weed control in dry rice nursery. Abstract. Pages 91 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on “Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment”, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Ramachandra, C, Rajput, OP, Anwarulla, MSS (2008) Productivity and nutrient balance of rice-based cropping systems as influenced by fertility levels in hill zone of Karnataka. J Farming Syst Res Dev 14:3541 Google Scholar
Ramachandra, C, Shivakumar, N, Rajanna, MP, Kalyanamurthy, KN (2012b) Effect of age of seedlings and weed management under SRI on yield of rice. Indian J Weed Sci 44:5052 Google Scholar
Ramachandra, C, Shivanna, M, Janardhan, G, Shivakumar, KV (2012c) Growth and productivity of kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.) as influenced by cropping sequences and fertility levels in hill zone of Karnataka. Crop Res (Hisar) 36:1215.Google Scholar
Rao, AN (2010) Integrated Weed Management in Rice in India. Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP). Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500030, India: Directorate of Rice Research. http://www.rkmp.co.in/sites/default/files/ris/research-themes/Integrated%20weed%20management%20in%20rice%20in%20India.pdf. Accessed January 14, 2014Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Ladha, JK (2011). Possible approaches for ecological weed management indirect-seeded rice in a changing world. Pages 444453 in Proceedings of the 23rd Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Sebel, Cairns, Australia Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Ladha, JK (2013) Economic weed management approaches for rice in Asia. Pages 500509 in Bakar, BH, Kurniadie, D, Tjitrosoedirdjo, S, eds. Proceedings of the 24th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference. Bandung, Indonesia Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Nagamani, A (2010) Integrated weed management in India–revisited. Indian J Weed Sci 42:123135 Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Moody, K (1987) Rice grain yield loss caused by transplanted Echinochloa glabrescens and possible control measures. Pages 203210 in Proceedings of the 11th Asian Pacific Weed Sciences Society Conference, Taipei, Republic of China Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Moody, K (1990) Weed seed contamination in rice seed. Seed Sci Technol 18:139146 Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Nagamani, A (2013) Eco-efficient weed management approaches for rice in tropical Asia. Pages 7887 in Proceedings of the 4th Tropical Weed Science Conference. Chiang Mai, Thailand TWSC.Google Scholar
Rao, AN, Johnson, DE, Sivaprasad, B, Ladha, JK, Mortimer, AM (2007) Weed management in direct-seeded rice. Adv Agron 93:153255 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sajjam, G, Jayadeva, HM, Krishnamurthy, N (2013) Effect of different weed control measures in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa). J Agric Res Technol 38:388392 Google Scholar
Sanjay, MT, Prasad, TVR, Pramod, G, Shubhashree, KS (2012). Effect of time of sowing and weed management on yield of direct seeded rice [Abstract]. Page 233 in Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science on Weed Threat to Agriculture, Biodiversity and Environment, Kerala Agricultural University. Thrissur, Kerala, India Indian Society of Weed Science Google Scholar
Sanjay, MT, Setty, TKP, Nanjappa, HV (2006a). Enhancing productivity of rice under different crop establishment methods through weed management practices. Crop Res (Hisar) 31:192197 Google Scholar
Sanjay, MT, Setty, TKP, Nanjappa, HV (2006b) Productivity, energetics and economics of different systems of crop establishment in rice. Crop Res (Hisar) 31:350353 Google Scholar
Sanjay, MT, Setty, TKP, Nanjappa, HV (2008) Investigation of crop establishment methods and weed management practices on productivity and economics in rice. Mysore J Agric Sci 42:6066 Google Scholar
Sastry, KSK, Boraiah, G, Govindu, HC, Khaleel, TF (1980) Weeds of Karnataka. Bangalore, India: University of Agricultural Sciences. 360 pGoogle Scholar
Sharanappa, MK, Gowda, M, Maharudrappa, K (1994a) Efficacy of herbicides in drill sown rice in hill zone of Karnataka state. Indian J Weed Sci 26:1215 Google Scholar
Sharanappa, MK, Gowda, M, Maharudrappa, K (1994b) Efficacy of herbicides on weed management in drill sown rice (Oryza sativa (L.)). Mysore J Agric Sci 28:813 Google Scholar
Sunil, CM, Shankaralingappa, BC (2014). Impact of integrated package of agrotechniques on growth and yield of aerobic rice. Agric Sci 5:6065 Google Scholar
Sunil, CM, Shekara, BG, Ashoka, P, Murthy, KNK, Madhukumar, V (2011) Effect of integrated weed management practices on aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Res Crops 12:626628 Google Scholar
Sushilkumar, Varshney JG (2010) Parthenium infestation and its estimated cost management in India. Indian J Weed Sci 42 (Supplementary Issue):7377 Google Scholar
Umesha, N, Krishnamurthy, , Sridhara, N, Venkatesha, MMS, Ramulu, (2009) Productivity of aerobic rice and weed control efficiency as influenced by smothering crops and intercultivation. Environ Ecol 27:656658.Google Scholar
Weerakoon, WMW, Mutunayake, MMP, Bandara, C, Rao, AN, Bhandari, DC, Ladha, JK (2011) Direct-seeded rice culture in Sri Lanka: lessons from farmers. Field Crops Res 121:5363 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 43 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 9th March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Weeds and Weed Management of Rice in Karnataka State, India
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *