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Weed Control in Soybean as Influenced by Residual Herbicide Use and Glyphosate-Application Timing Following Different Planting Dates

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Ryan P. DeWerff
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706
Shawn P. Conley
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706
Jed B. Colquhoun
Affiliation:
Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706
Vince M. Davis*
Affiliation:
Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1575 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706
*
Corresponding author's E-mail: vmdavis@wisc.edu.

Abstract

Soybean planting has occurred earlier in the Midwestern United States in recent years; however, earlier planting subjects the crop to longer durations of weed interference. This may change the optimum timing of POST glyphosate applications, or increase the need for residual herbicides applied PRE to optimize yield. A field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 near Arlington, WI to determine the effect of planting date, residual herbicide use, and POST glyphosate timing on weed control and soybean yield. Planting dates were late April, mid-May, and early June. A PRE application of sulfentrazone plus cloransulam was applied to half the plots following each planting date. Glyphosate was applied POST to all plots at the V1, V2, V4, or R1 soybean growth stage. Planting date and glyphosate timing did not affect soybean yield in this study. However, averaged across years, planting dates, and POST glyphosate timings, yield increased from 3,280 to 3,500 kg ha−1 when a PRE herbicide with residual soil activity was used. In POST-only treatments, delaying the planting date to June decreased weed density at POST application timing from 127 to 5 plants m−2 (96%) and from 205 to 42 plants m−2 (80%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Where a PRE was used, total weed density at POST application timing was always less within planting date, and also declined from early to late planting date 26 to 3 plants m−2 (89%) and 23 to 6 plants m−2 (74%) in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In conclusion, both PRE herbicide use and delayed soybean planting were effective strategies to reduce the number of in-crop weeds exposed to POST glyphosate and should be considered as strategies to reduce the number of weeds exposed to POST herbicides for resistance management.

La siembra de la soja se ha dado más temprano, en años recientes en el Medio oeste de los Estados Unidos. Sin embargo, la siembra temprana expone al cultivo a períodos más largos de interferencia de malezas. Esto podría cambiar el momento óptimo para las aplicaciones POST de glyphosate, o podría incrementar la necesidad de aplicación PRE de herbicidas residuales para optimizar el rendimiento. En 2012 y 2013, cerca de Arlington, Wisconsin, se realizó un estudio de campo para determinar el efecto de la fecha de siembra, el uso de herbicidas residuales, y el momento de aplicación POST de glyphosate sobre el control de malezas y el rendimiento de la soja. Las fechas de siembra fueron: al final de Abril, la mitad de Mayo, y el inicio de Junio. Se aplicó sulfentrazone más cloransulam PRE a la mitad de las parcelas después de cada fecha de siembra. Glyphosate fue aplicado POST a todas las parcelas en los estadios de desarrollo V1, V2, V4, o R1 de la soja. La fecha de siembra y el momento de aplicación de glyphosate no afectaron el rendimiento de la soja en este estudio. Sin embargo, al promediar los años, las fechas de siembra, y los momentos de aplicación POST de glyphosate, el rendimiento incrementó de 3,280 a 3,500 kg ha−1 cuando se usó un herbicida PRE con actividad residual. En tratamientos con solo aplicaciones POST, el retrasar la fecha de siembra a Junio redujo la densidad de malezas al momento de la aplicación POST de 127 a 5 plantas m−2 (96%) y de 205 a 42 plantas m−2 (80%) en 2012 y 2013, respectivamente. Donde se usó una aplicación PRE, la densidad total de malezas al momento de la aplicación POST fue siempre menor, dentro de cada fecha de siembra, y también disminuyó de la fecha de siembra temprana a la tardía de 26 a 3 plantas m−2 (89%) y de 23 a 6 plantas m−2 (74%) en 2012 y 2013, respectivamente. En conclusión, el uso de herbicidas PRE y la siembra retrasada de la soja fueron estrategias efectivas para reducir el número de malezas dentro del cultivo expuestas a glyphosate POST y deberían ser consideradas como estrategias para reducir el número de malezas expuestas a herbicidas POST para el manejo de resistencia.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Weed Science Society of America 

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