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POST control of Italian ryegrass in hazelnut orchards

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2021

Marcelo L. Moretti*
Assistant Professor, Oregon State University, Department of Horticulture, Corvallis, OR, USA
Author for correspondence: Marcelo L Moretti, Assistant Professor, Oregon State University, 4017 Agriculture and Life Sciences, 2750 SW Campus Way, Corvallis, OR 97331. Email:


Italian ryegrass has become a problematic weed in hazelnut orchards of Oregon because of the presence of herbicide-resistant populations. Resistant and multiple-resistant Italian ryegrass populations are now the predominant biotypes in Oregon; there is no information on which herbicides effectively control Italian ryegrass in hazelnut orchards. Six field studies were conducted in commercial orchards to evaluate Italian ryegrass control with POST herbicides. Treatments included flazasulfuron, glufosinate, glyphosate, paraquat, rimsulfuron, and sethoxydim applied alone or in selected mixtures during early spring when plants were in the vegetative stage. Treatment efficacy was dependent on the experimental site. The observed range of weed control 28 d after treatment was 13% to 76% for glyphosate, 1% to 72% for paraquat, 58% to 88% for glufosinate, 16% to 97% for flazasulfuron, 8% to 94% for rimsulfuron, and 25% to 91% for sethoxydim. Herbicides in mixtures improved control of Italian ryegrass compared to single active ingredients based on contrast analysis. Herbicides in mixture increased control by 27% compared to glyphosate, 18% to rimsulfuron, 15% to flazasulfuron, 19% to sethoxydim, and 12% compared to glufosinate when averaged across all sites, but mixture did not always improve reduction of ground coverage or of biomass. This complex site-specific response highlights the importance of record-keeping for efficient herbicide use. Glufosinate is an effective option to manage Italian ryegrass. However, the glufosinate-resistant biotypes documented in Oregon may jeopardize this practice. Nonchemical weed control options are needed for sustainable weed management in hazelnuts.

Research Article
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America

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Associate Editor: Darren Robinson, University of Guelph


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