Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Light effects on rhizome morphogenesis in nutsedges (Cyperus spp.): implications for control by soil solarization

  • Carlene A. Chase, Thomas R. Sinclair (a1), Donn G. Shilling (a2), James P. Gilreath (a3) and Salvadore J. Locascio (a4)...

Abstract

Soil solarization is a process of soil disinfestation that involves solar heating of moist soil covered with transparent polyethylene film. This nonchemical approach to controlling soil-borne pests is being investigated as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. Summer solarization controlled annual weed species and suppressed purple nutsedge. Although some nutsedge tubers sprouted despite the solarization treatment, the resulting shoots were almost always trapped under the clear solarization film. Conversely, in rows that were mulched with black film, nutsedge rhizomes punctured the film so that leaf expansion occurred above the film. In controlled pot experiments conducted in darkness, yellow nutsedge rhizomes readily penetrated 19- and 30-μm clear films as effectively as opaque films. Thicker clear films and bubble film reduced nutsedge penetration. In the greenhouse and laboratory, nutsedge penetration of transparent polyethylene film was inversely related to irradiance levels when the film was in direct contact with the soil. However, when there was a 5- to 10-mm space between the soil and the film, the lowest irradiance level (30 μmol m−2 s−1) was as effective as 320 μmol m−2 s−1 in reducing penetration by purple nutsedge. The film penetration by nutsedge rhizomes appears to be linked to a light-dependent morphological change from rhizome growth to leaf development, which occurs before film penetration with clear mulch and after film penetration with opaque mulch. The alternate sprouting and foliar scorching of nutsedge shoots trapped under clear films could potentially be exploited to deplete nutsedge tubers that occur at soil depths that do not develop lethal temperatures under soil solarization.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author. USDA-ARS, Agronomy Physiology and Genetics Laboratory, P.O. Box 110965, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; cach@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu

References

Hide All
Aleixo, M. D. and Valio, I.F.M. 1976. Effect of light, temperature and endogenous growth regulators on the growth of buds of Cyperus rotundus L. tubers. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 80: 336347.
Chase, C. A., Sinclair, T. R., Locascio, S. J., Dickson, D. W., Gilreath, J. P., and Jones, J. P. 1997. An evaluation of improved polyethylene films for cool season soil solarization. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 110: 326329.
Chellemi, D. O., Olson, S. M., Mitchell, D. J., Secker, I., and McSorley, R. 1997. Adaptation of soil solarization to the integrated management of soilborne pests of tomato under humid conditions. Phytopathology 87: 250258.
Hart, J. W. 1988. Light and Plant Growth. London: Unwin Hyman. 204 p.
Horowitz, M., Regev, Y., and Herzlinger, G. 1983. Solarization for weed control. Weed Sci. 31: 170179.
Katan, J., Greenberger, A., Alon, H., and Grinstein, A. 1976. Solar heating by polyethylene mulching for the control of diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens. Phytopathology 66: 683688.
Keeley, P. E. and Thullen, R. J. 1978. Light requirements of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and light interception by crops. Weed Sci. 26: 1016.
Neeser, C., Aguero, R., and Swanton, C. J. 1997. Incident photosynthetically active radiation as a basis for integrated management of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Sci. 45: 777783.
Patterson, D. T. 1982. Shading responses of purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci. 30: 2530.
Patterson, D. T. 1998. Suppression of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) with polyethylene film mulch. Weed Technol. 12: 275280.
Rubin, B. and Benjamin, A. 1983. Solar heating of the soil: effect on weed control and on soil-incorporated herbicides. Weed Sci. 31: 819825.
Salisbury, F. B. and Ross, C. W. 1978. Plant Physiology. Belmont: Wadsworth. 540 p.
Santos, B. M., Morales-Payan, J. P., Stall, W. M., and Bewick, T. A. 1997a. Influence of tuber size and shoot removal on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) regrowth. Weed Sci. 45: 681683.
Santos, B. M., Morales-Payan, J. P., Stall, W. M., Bewick, T. A., and Shilling, D. G. 1997b. Effects of shading on growth of nutsedges (Cyperus spp.). Weed Sci. 45: 670673.
Stoller, E. W. and Sweet, R. D. 1987. Biology and life cycle of purple and yellow nutsedges (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) . Weed Technol. 1: 6673.
Stoller, E. W. and Woolley, J. T. 1983. The effects of light and temperature on yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) basal- bulb formation. Weed Sci. 31: 148152.
Stoller, E. W., Nema, D. P., and Bhan, V. M. 1972. Yellow nutsedge tuber germination and seedling development. Weed Sci. 20: 9397.
Thomas, W. B. 1996. Methyl bromide: effective pest management tool and environmental threat. J. Nematol. 28(Suppl.): 586589.
Wills, G. D. 1975. Effect of light and temperature on growth of purple nutsedge. Weed Sci. 23: 9396.
Wills, G. D., Hoagland, R. E., and Paul, R. N. 1980. Anatomy of yellow nutsedge. Weed Sci. 28: 432437.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed