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FROM ADAPTATION TO TRANSFORMATION: SHAKESPEARE CREOLIZED ON CAPE VERDE'S FESTIVAL STAGE

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 April 2009

Extract

This is a tale of two directors. The setting is the Republic of Cape Verde, a former Portuguese colony and a tiny archipelago nestled off the coast of Senegal in West Africa. Framing the story is Cape Verde's annual Mindelact International Theatre Festival, which since 1997 has invited Lusophone theatre artists from three continents to perform a wide array of theatre genres on a mainstage program alongside Cape Verdean troupes. João Branco, a Portuguese director who moved to the islands in the early 1990s, is the artistic director of both the Mindelact Festival and the veteran Cape Verdean theatre troupe GTCCPM (Grupo de Teatro do Centro Cultural Português do Mindelo/Theatre Group of the Mindelo Portuguese Cultural Center). For Mindelact 2003, GTCCPM performed an abridged version of King Lear rendered in Cape Verdean Crioulo, a mix of Portuguese and several West African languages. Beyond bolstering Branco's cherished goal of creolizing Shakespeare's plays by transporting them to Cape Verde's Afro-European cultural milieu, Rei Lear worked in concert with the festival's media blitz to extol local spectators in Mindelact's host city, Mindelo, for their good taste. Two years later, Herlandson Duarte, a young Cape Verdean director and Branco's former theatre student, staged a Crioulo-language Midsummer Night's Dream at Mindelact with his new theatre company, Solaris. Duarte's production transformed Bottom's play-within-a-play into a searing critique of Mindelense audiences and the structures of authority that prop up the festival itself.

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Research Article
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Copyright © American Society for Theatre Research 2009

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References

Endnotes

1. Among the West African languages that Cape Verdean linguist Dulce Almada Duarte identifies as major contributors to the lexicon of Cape Verdean Crioulo are Wolof Mandinka, and Bambara. See “Crioulo de Cabo Verde: sua génese, sua evolução” in her Bilinguismo ou diglossia?, 2d ed. (Praia, Cape Verde: Spleen Edições, 2003), 33–74.

2. The best example is Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins's theorization of postcolonial adaptations as “canonical counter-discourses,” a term they borrow from Gilbert, Helen Tiffin; and Tompkins, , Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics (New York: Routledge, 1996), 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Sanders, Julie, Adaptation and Appropriation (London: Routledge, 2006)Google Scholar; Edwards's, Paul review of Sanders, “Adaptation: Two Theories,” Text and Performance Quarterly 27.4 (October 2007): 369–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Wetmore, Kevin J. Jr., The Athenian Sun in an African Sky: Modern African Adaptations of Classical Greek Tragedy (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002)Google Scholar. In his introduction, Wetmore hypothesizes that postcolonial African playwrights' frequent adaptations of Greek tragedies was itself a form of rebellion against the Shakespeare and Molière plays that dominated colonial curricula. Most of the above-mentioned scholarship follows the postcolonial framework outlined in Bill Ashcroft, Griffiths, Garrett, and Tiffin, Helen, The Empire Writes Back (New York: Routledge, 2002)Google Scholar.

3. These have sometimes been performed by visiting theatre troupes, such as the Lisbon-based group Teatro Meridional, whose adaptation of Romeo and Juliet about the male Montague characters was staged for Mindelact 1999.

4. Lionnet, Françoise and Shih, Shu-mei, “Introduction: Thinking through the Minor, Transnationally,” in Minor Transnationalism, ed. Lionnet, and Shih, (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005), 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

5. Besides Mindelact, other arts festivals on this circuit include Rio de Janeiro's Bienal de Arte, Ciência e Cultura; Mozambique's Festival d'Agosto; FITEI (Festival Internacional de Teatro de Expressão Ibérica), a festival for Portuguese- and Spanish-language theatre held annually in Porto, Portugal; and the newly formed FESTLIP (Festival de Teatro da Língua Portuguesa), held for the first time in Rio de Janeiro in summer 2008.

6. Although explicitly stated by only a few of the contributing authors, this is an implicit presumption underlying much of the book on festival cultures produced by the Theatrical Event Working Group of the International Federation for Theatre Research. See Hauptfleisch, Temple, et al. , eds., Festivalising! Theatrical Events, Politics and Culture (New York: Rodopi, 2007)Google Scholar, especially Vicki Ann Cremona, “Introduction: The Festivalising Process,” 5–13, at 12; and Willmar Sauter, “Festivals as Theatrical Events: Building Theories,” 17–25, at 23.

7. Here I am indebted to Ric Knowles's sophisticated analysis of how meaning is produced within theatre events. See his Reading the Material Theatre (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

8. See Lan, Yong Li, “Shakespeare and the Fiction of the Intercultural,” in A Companion to Shakespeare and Performance, ed. Hodgdon, Barbara and Worthen, W. B. (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005), 527–49Google Scholar; Zarrilli, Phillip B., “For Whom Is the King a King? Issues of Intercultural Production, Perception, and Reception in a Kathakali King Lear,” in Critical Theory and Performance, ed. Reinelt, Janelle G. and Roach, Joseph R. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992), 1640Google Scholar (108–33 in rev., enlarged ed. of 2007); Thurman, Christopher, “Sher and Doran's Titus Andronicus (1995): Importing Shakespeare, Exporting South Africa,” Shakespeare in Southern Africa 18 (2006): 2936Google Scholar; Kennedy, Dennis, “Afterword: Shakespearean Orientalism,” in Foreign Shakespeare: Contemporary Performance, ed. Kennedy, Dennis (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 290303Google Scholar.

9. See Knowles, Richard Paul, “From Nationalist to Multinational: The Stratford Festival, Free Trade, and the Discourses of Intercultural Tourism,” Theatre Journal 47.1 (March 1995): 1941CrossRefGoogle Scholar, esp. 35–6; Worthen, W. B., Shakespeare and the Force of Modern Performance (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, esp. 165–8. In an African context, perhaps no Shakespeare adaptation has invited this critique more so than Welcome Msomi's Zulu Macbeth/Umabatha, complete with dancing, drumming, and various signifiers of rural witchcraft. See McLuskie, Kate, “Macbeth/Umabatha: Global Shakespeare in a Post-Colonial Market,” Shakespeare Survey 52 (1999): 154–65Google Scholar; Natasha Distiller, “‘The Zulu Macbeth’: The Value of an ‘African Shakespeare,’” Shakespeare Survey 57 (2004): 159–68Google Scholar. The production, which traveled to Shakespeare's Globe in London in 1997 as part of the Globe-to-Globe Festival, also informs Worthen's discussion of “Shakespearean geographies” (153–5).

10. Knowles, Reading the Material Theatre, 181.

11. Yong, 548.

12. Döring, Tobias, “A Branch of the Blue Nile: Derek Walcott and the Tropic of Shakespeare,” in World-Wide Shakespeares: Local Appropriations in Film and Performance, ed. Massai, Sonia (London: Routledge, 2005), 1522, at 16Google Scholar.

13. Bharucha, Rustom, “Foreign Asia/Foreign Shakespeare: Dissenting Notes on New Asian Interculturality, Postcoloniality, and Recolonization,” Theatre Journal 56 (March 2004): 128, at 4CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

14. Sonia Massai, “Defining Local Shakespeares,” in Massai, World-Wide Shakespeares, 3–11, at 6.

15. Temple Hauptfleisch, “Festivals as Eventifying Systems,” in Hauptfleisch et al., eds., Festivalising!, 39–47, at 43–4.

16. See João Branco, “Mindelact 96: Discurso de Encerramento,” document no. 870, Mindelact Documentation Center, Mindelo, Cape Verde (hereafter Mindelact Documentation Center).

17. “Governo alinha com Mindelact,” Horizonte (Cape Verde), 16 September 1997. Specifically, Delgado said that future histories of Cape Verdean theatre will no doubt divide this history into “before and after Mindelact.” Evidently this is advice that João Branco took to heart when he wrote such a history some years later: Nação Teatro: História do teatro em Cabo Verde (Praia, Cape Verde: Instituto da Biblioteca Nacional e do Livro [IBNL], 2004). Branco's celebratory chapter on the Mindelact Festival appears in the very middle of the book, literally separating Cape Verdean theatre history into the two eras that Delgado described in 1997.

18. João Almeida, “Teatro para todos os gostos,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 14 September 2001.

19. The PAICV party splintered from the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde/African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde) in 1980 after a coup in Guinea-Bissau put an end to the PAIGC's original vision of political unity between the countries.

20. See Lobban, Richard A., Cape Verde: Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), 145–52Google Scholar. See also the two parties' official Web sites: www.paicv.cv and www.mpd.cv.

21. “As sete partidas do mundo,” Público (Lisbon), 3 September 1995. See also “O telão levanta esta sexta-feira: Primeira edição do Mindelact ’95,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 28 August 1995, and “Teatro,” Novo Jornal (Cape Verde), 30 August 1995. (Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Portuguese- and Crioulo-language sources are my own.)

22. João Branco, “Mindelact: Associação Artística e Cultural,” document no. 0888, Mindelact Documentation Center.

23. Cena Lusófona's first two theatre stations were held in Maputo, Mozambique, in 1995 and Rio de Janeiro in 1996.

24. See Brito, Ineida K. F., “Mindelact: O teatro ontem, hoje e amanhã,” O Cidadão (Cape Verde), 17 July 2001Google Scholar, sec. Cultura: 16. In Portuguese, the quotes from Mindelact's statutes read: “Promover a apresentação de espectáculos teatrais de grupos estrangeiros no Festival, privilegiando o contacto com os grupos oriundos dos países lusófonoas” and “servir de elo de ligação entre os agentes teatrais cabo-verdianos e os promotores de intercâmbio teatral entre os países lusófonos.”

25. Proposal and budget for “Capital Lusófona da Cultura 2002/2003,” document no. 665, Mindelact Documentation Center.

26. Mindelact's new set of objectives, approved during the March 2007 general assembly meeting, are available online at mindelact.com/apresentacao.htm.

27. Conquergood, Dwight, “Performance Studies: Interventions and Radical Research,” The Drama Review 46.2 (2002): 145–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 149; rpt. in The Performance Studies Reader, ed. Henry Bial (Routledge, 2004), 311–22. Here, Conquergood works from Frederick Douglass's life narrative and the ethnographic approach advocated in Fabian's, JohannesPower and Performance: Ethnographic Exploration through Proverbial Wisdom and Theater in Shaba, Zaire (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990)Google Scholar.

28. To my knowledge, neither Fugard's nor Soyinka's plays have been translated into Portuguese. When I discussed these and other African playwrights with the Cape Verdean, Mozambican, and Angolan performers who attended Mindelact, I learned that they regretted not having access to their plays. This led to one of the more curious moments of my ethnographic research, when João Branco asked me to lead a two-day workshop on African theatre for Mindelact 2006. Due to time limitations, I gave some broad strokes about theatre in representative countries such as Nigeria, focusing on popular traveling theatre traditions and different generations of playwrights. I discussed the plot outline of Wole Soyinka's important play Death and the King's Horseman (1975). Among the workshop participants were a handful of actors from the Solaris theatre company. Later, they approached me about working with them on a Portuguese-language translation for them to perform at a future Mindelact edition. This incident is perhaps an indication of how the Mindelact Festival may eventually open up to performing playwrights from the larger African continent.

29. Santos, Boaventura Sousa de, “Between Prospero and Caliban: Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and Inter-Identity,” Luso-Brazilian Review 39.2 (Winter 2002): 943CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 11.

30. See Medeiros's, Paulo de critique of Santos in “Voiding the Centre: Notes Towards a Reconfiguration of Postcolonial Studies,” in Towards a Portuguese Postcolonialism, ed. Soares, Anthony (Bristol: University of Bristol, Dept. of Hispanic, Portuguese & Latin American Studies, 2006), 2746Google Scholar, at 46.

31. See Anthony Soares, “Introduction: From Minho to Timor and Back Again—A Journey of Postcolonial (non)Possession,” in Soares, ed., Towards a Portuguese Postcolonialism, 5–25, at 12.

32. Rayner, Francesca, “Nationalizing the Bard: Contemporary Performances of Shakespeare at Portuguese National Theatres,” Luso-Brazilian Review 44.1 (June 2007): 142–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 144–5.

33. For an excellent study of the trajectory and ideological import of Freyre's writings, see Castelo, Cláudia, “O modo português de estar no mundo”: O luso-tropicalismo e a ideologia colonial portuguesa (1933–1961) (Porto: Edições Afrontamento, 1998)Google Scholar. Freyre's major work, Casa Grande & Senzala, has been published in English as The Masters and the Slaves, trans. Samuel Putnam (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, [1946] 1971).

34. Thomaz, Omar Ribeiro, “Tigres de papel: Gilberto Freyre, Portugal e os países Africanos de língua oficial portuguesa,” in Trânsitos coloniais: Diálogos críticos Luso-Brasileiros, ed. Bastos, Cristiana, de Almeida, Miguel Vale, and Feldman-Bianco, Bela (Lisbon: Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2002), 3964Google Scholar.

35. de Almeida, Miguel Vale, An Earth-Colored Sea: “Race,” Culture, and the Politics of Identity in the Postcolonial Portuguese-Speaking World (New York: Berghahn, 2004), 63Google Scholar. See also Chabal, Patrick, “Introduction,” in The Postcolonial Literature of Lusophone Africa, ed. Chabal, et al. (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1996), 128Google Scholar, at 2. Mozambican intellectuals have been particularly resistant to the all-encompassing term Lusophone. For example, Orlando Mendes vehemently rejects the idea that the five Portuguese-speaking African countries are united by a common culture simply because they all adopted the same language as their ex-colonizer. See his “Lusofonia e luso-africanismo,” Tempo 548 (April 1981): 60–1.

36. See McMahon, Christina S., “Embodying Diaspora: Ambivalence and Utopia in Contemporary Cape Verdean Theatre,” Theatre History Studies 27 (2007): 110–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 124–6; Seiber, R. Timothy, “Composing Lusophonia: Multiculturalism and National Identity in Lisbon's 1998 Musical Scene,” Diaspora 11.2 (2002): 163–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Alfredo Prado, “Moçambique é e não é país de língua portuguesa,” Portugal Digital–Brazil/Portugal, 1 July 2008 (interview with Mozambican author Mia Couto) available at www.portugaldigital.com.br/sis/noticia.kmf?noticia=7463507&canal=156 (accessed 13 July 2008).

37. Santos, 35.

38. “Declaração Constitutiva da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa,” CPLP 1 (1996): 6–11, at 7.

39. António Augusto Barros, interview with the author, Coimbra, Portugal, 22 July 2005.

40. Anjos, José Carlos Gomes dos, Intelectuais, literatura e poder em Cabo Verde: lutas de definição da identidade nacional (Praia, Cape Verde: INIPC, 2002), 93Google Scholar.

41. In his 1955 essay “Bases para uma Cultura de Cabo Verde” (“Bases for a Cape Verdean Culture”), renowned Cape Verdean author António Aurélio Gonçalves writes that he delighted in reading Garrett and Queirós in school. He uses Cape Verdean students’ affinity with this genre of literature as evidence that whatever other influences Cape Verdean culture may evidence, it is “structurally Portuguese.” See Gonçalves, , Ensaios e Outros Escritos (Praia–Mindelo: Centro Cultural Português, 1998), 124Google Scholar. Besides reading Portuguese drama in school, Cape Verdeans in the 1960s could attend performances of plays by late-medieval playwright Gil Vicente (considered the “father” of Portuguese theatre and the Lusophone equivalent of Shakespeare) when touring Portuguese troupes staged his “discovery” plays as part of the 500th anniversary of the arrival of the first Portuguese in Cape Verde. See the transcript of “Mário Matos, 1.º Encontro de Agentes Teatrais,” speech delivered by Matos at a roundtable discussion held during the Mindelact Festival, September 1996, document no. 170, Mindelact Documentation Center.

42. I am indebted to Leo Cabranes-Grant for this observation.

43. From exam questions on one of the tests Branco administered to his class during the 2006–7 session, document no. 1521, Mindelact Documentation Center. I observed Branco's class several times while living in Mindelo and witnessed how often the class received handouts and instruction on various eras of Western theatre. To temper this Eurocentric emphasis, I led a session on African theatre one night and handed out a bibliography of plays from various African countries.

44. In Portuguese, Branco called Mindelact “uma tentativa, bem sucedida a nosso ver, de cópia dos Festivais de Teatro que conhecemos, principalmente na Europa.” See “Mindelact 96: Discurso de Encerramento,” document no. 870, Mindelact Documentation Center.

45. See Appadurai, Arjun, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 32Google Scholar; and Robertson, Roland, “Glocalization: Time–Space and Homogeneity–Heterogeneity,” in Global Modernities, ed. Featherstone, Mike, Lash, Scott, and Robertson, Roland (London: Sage Publications, 1995), 2544CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 38.

46. Branco, Nação Teatro, 354–5.

47. João Branco, interview with the author, Mindelo, Cape Verde, 21 March 2007. For Mindelact 2004, Sal Island's theatre group Estrelas de Sul dramatized such a Cape Verdean inheritance dispute among brothers in their mainstage show Ka' de Morte (House of Death/Mourning).

48. Lobban, Richard A. Jr and Saucier, Paul Khalil, eds., Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde, 4th ed. (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2007), 70–1Google Scholar.

49. See Fêo Rodrigues, Isabel P. B., “Islands of Sexuality: Theories and Histories of Creolization in Cape Verde,” International Journal of African Historical Studies 36.1 (2003): 83103CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

50. See António Leão de Aguiar Silva, Cardoso Correia e, Nos tempos do Porto Grande do Mindelo (Praia–Mindelo, Cape Verde: Centro Cultural Português, 2000)Google Scholar; Monteiro, João M., “From Coal Depot to Cesária's Home: Mindelo at the Crossroads of the World,” in Urbanization and African Cultures, ed. Falola, Toyin and Salm, Steven J. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2005), 201–10Google Scholar.

51. For example, Cape Verde's current prime minister, José Maria Neves, is negotiating a special relationship for Cape Verde with the European Union even as he continues to support Cape Verde's participation in ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States, which facilitates free trade among designated West African nations. See Abreu, Catarina, “Cabo Verde sera uma ponte entre os vários continentes,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 12 January 2007, 89Google Scholar; and White, David and Wise, Peter, “FT Report—Cape Verde 2007,” Financial Times, 13 November 2007, 16Google Scholar.

52. Kesha D. Fikes, “Santiaguense Cape Verdean Women in Portugal: Labor Rights, Citizenship, and Diasporic Transformation” (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 2000); Meintel, Deirdre, Race, Culture, and Portuguese Colonialism in Cape Verde (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1984), 128, 130Google Scholar.

53. Lobban and Saucier, 27.

54. On the PAIGC, see n. 19. Re-Africanization was an ideology espoused and promoted by Cape Verde's much-revered independence leader Amílcar Cabral. See Cabral, , Unity and Struggle: Speeches and Writings, trans. Wolfers, Michael (London: Heinemann, 1980)Google Scholar.

55. See my discussion of one such play, Tchom di Morgado, which was performed by the Santiago-based theatre group OTACA for Mindelact 2004. McMahon, Christina S., “Mimesis and the Historical Imagination: (Re)Staging History in Cape Verde, West Africa,” Theatre Research International 33.1 (March 2008): 2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

56. Narciso Freire, interview with the author, Assomada, Cape Verde, 13 August 2005; Sabino Baessa, conversation with the author, 10 September 2006.

57. This is a sentiment I heard time and again from a wide cross section of Mindelo theatre artists during my fieldwork periods in 2004–7.

58. Branco, interview with the author, 21 March 2007.

59. Hannerz, Ulf, “The World in Creolization,” in Readings in African Popular Culture, ed. Barber, Karin (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997), 1217Google Scholar, at 16.

60. See Mintz, Sidney, “Enduring Substances, Trying Theories: The Caribbean Region as Oikoumene,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute n.s. 2.2 (1996): 289311CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 302.

61. Fernandes, Gabriel, Em busca da nação: Notas para uma reinterpretação do Cabo Verde Crioulo (Florianópolis, Brazil: UFSC/Praia, Cape Verde: IBNL, 2006), 55Google Scholar.

62. Pavis, Patrice, “Problems of Translation for the Stage: Interculturalism and Post-Modern Theatre,” trans. Kruger, Loren, in The Play out of Context: Transferring Plays from Culture to Culture, ed. Scolnicov, Hanna and Holland, Peter (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 2544Google Scholar, at 26–7.

63. See the chapter entitled “O Texto Teatral: Dramaturgia e temáticas do teatro cabo-verdiano” in Branco, Nação Teatro, 301–90. Branco has also been a dynamic force in publishing new Cape Verdean plays. The Mindelact Association has published anthologies of plays by notable Cape Verdean playwrights such as Mário Lúcio and Espírito Santos.

64. For a discussion of the function of a festival's artistic director, see Cremona, “Introduction,” 7; and Henri Schoenmakers, “Festivals, Theatrical Events, and Communicative Interactions,” in Hauptfleisch et al., eds., Festivalising!, 27–37, at 32–3.

65. This is a dynamic I witnessed often when I jointly led a student theatre group on Sal Island, where I taught English as a Peace Corps volunteer from 1998 to 2000.

66. TSF [Teresa Sofia Fortes], “Silêncio, o teatro vai começar,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 5 September 2003, 3.

67. “Teatro para todos os gostos,” Expresso das ilhas (Cape Verde), 3 September 2003; TSF [Teresa Sofia Fortes], “Rei Lear ou o crioulo shakespeareano,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 12 September 2003.

68. “Público do Mindelo distinguido,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 28 March 2003. Branco also noted that many of these spectators became educated about theatre after passing through his introductory theatre class.

69. Branco, interview with the author, 21 March 2007.

70. Pavis, Patrice, Theatre at the Crossroads of Culture (New York: Routledge, 1992), 16CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

71. “Mindelact terá forte presença lusófona,” Horizonte (Cape Verde), 22 August 2003; TSF [Teresa Sofia Fortes], “Sabor lusófono: Mindelact,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 6 June 2003, sec. Cultura:16.

72. See Lobban and Saucier, 72.

73. Gilbert and Tompkins, 168.

74. Branco, Nação Teatro, 363.

75. F. F., “Cabo Verde: Shakespeare em crioulo pelo grupo do Centro Cultural Português,” Lusa: Agência de notícias de Portugal, 12 September 2003, document no. 807, Mindelact Documentation Center.

76. Linguist Angela Bartens notes that the frequent mixture of Portuguese and Crioulo on the northern islands stems from speakers' “inability or lack of motivation . . . to distinguish between the two codes.” Bartens, , “Notes on Componential Diffusion in the Genesis of the Kabuverdianu Cluster,” in Language Change and Language Contact in Pidgins and Creoles, ed. McWhorter, John (Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2000), 3561, at 40CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

77. Most of the Crioulo words that Dulce Almada Duarte identifies as having discernible African origins are badiu. See Duarte, Bilinguismo ou diglossia?, 57–60. She also maintains that as the basilectal creole form, badiu is more resistant to “contamination” by Portuguese structures (133).

78. King Lear, II.4.238, in the Complete Signet Classic Shakespeare, ed. Sylvan Barnet (Chicago: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972).

79. Shakespeare, William, O Rei Lear, trans. Cunhal, Álvaro (Lisbon: Editorial Caminho, 2002)Google Scholar. Many thanks to João Branco for alerting me to this text. Interestingly, Álvaro Cunhal was also the former secretary general of the Portuguese Communist Party.

80. Quoted from the unpublished script for GTCCPM's Rei Lear. Thanks to João Branco for sharing this script with me.

81. Duarte, Bilinguismo ou diglossia?, 62.

82. Pavis, “Problems of Translation for the Stage,” 42.

83. Quote from Custódio's interview on Hulda Moreira's documentary Mindelo—Palco das ilhas (Praia, Cape Verde: RTP África, 2005).

84. Herlandson Duarte relayed this information anecdotally to me right after Sonho debuted.

85. Herlandson Duarte, interview with the author, Mindelo, Cape Verde, 29 August 2007.

86. Matilde Dias, “Uma pedra no charco,” 2 October 2005, entry on Dias's blog Lantuna. Available at lantuna.blogspot.com/2005/10/uma-pedra-no-charco.html (accessed 29 August 2007).

87. Glissant, Edouard, Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays, trans. Dash, J. Michael (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989), 195220Google Scholar, at 195, 203. [Originally published as “Théâtre, conscience du peuple,” Acoma, no. 2 (July 1971): 41–59.]

88. Ibid., 219–20.

89. Ibid., 205.

90. Ibid., 217.

91. “A quebra de uma tradição,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 10 September 2004, sec. Kriolidadi: 3.

92. Teresa Sofia Fortes, “História das relações amorosas,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 11 March 2005, sec. Kriolidadi: 6.

93. “‘Julietas’ ou a tentação do pecado pela companhia Solaris,” available at mindelact.com/noticiasArq-37.htm (accessed 26 December 2007).

94. Herlandson Duarte, interview with the author, Mindelo, Cape Verde, 7 September 2005.

95. “‘Julietas’ ou a tentação do pecado.”

96. Duarte, interview with the author, 29 August 2007.

97. All quotations from the adaptation are from Solaris's unpublished script, which the company shared with me.

98. Group interview with Solaris actors, Mindelo, Cape Verde, 11 March 2008. After this exchange, Milanka Vera-Cruz, who played Titânia, added, “No, Christina, the court is the court.” My impression was that she was worried the other actors were oversimplifying the adaptation by suggesting one-to-one correspondences.

99. Dias, “Uma pedra no charco.”

100. The group was forthright about this in their flyer for Mindelact 2005, which states that their show will “address the values of Cape Verdean theatre, the values of actors . . . , critiquing theatre itself with theatre.” See Solaris, Sonho de uma noite de verão, flyer, document no. 1120, Mindelact Documentation Center.

101. Herlandson Duarte, in fact, told me an anecdote about Solaris's summer 2007 production that seemed to illustrate that some Mindelo spectators finally stopped attending Solaris's shows. Their production, Putrefacto, featured the odor of putrid meat, horrific plastic fetuses dangling over spectators' heads, and actors biting each other and violating dolls. Recalls Duarte, “No one liked it. Everyone left in shocked silence. The president of Teatrakácia [another Mindelo group] vowed never to see a Solaris show again.” Interview with the author, 29 August 2007.

102. See Wetmore, 13–37.

103. Duarte, interview with the author, 29 August 2007.

104. Duarte, interview with the author, 7 September 2005.

105. de Certeau, Michel, “‘Making Do’: Uses and Tactics,” in The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Rendall, Steven (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 2942Google Scholar.

106. Dias, “Uma Pedra no Charco.”

107. Glissant, 217.

108. Bharucha, “Foreign Asia/Foreign Shakespeare,” 8.

109. Herlandson Duarte, “Termómetro teatral em São Vicente,” 24 August 2006. Available at cteatrosolariscv.blogspot.com/2006/08/termmetro-teatral-em-so-vicente.html (accessed 7 August 2008).

110. João Branco, response to Duarte, in “Termómetro teatral em São Vicente.”

111. Teresa Sofia Fortes, “Polémica antecipa Mindelact,” A Semana (Cape Verde), 23 June 2006, sec. Kriolidade: 8.

112. This was the opinion of the director of the Mindelo Cultural Center, for example. Josina Fortes, interview with the author, Mindelo, Cape Verde, 2 March 2007.

113. Sanders, Adaptation and Appropriation, esp. 12–15.

114. Diamond, Elin, “Introduction,” in Performance & Cultural Politics, ed. Diamond, (New York: Routledge, 1996), 114Google Scholar, at 4–5. I am grateful to Sandra L. Richards for pushing me to examine this conceptual angle of “transformative.”