Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis

  • Lucia R. Valmaggia (a1), Daniel Freeman (a2), Catherine Green (a3), Philippa Garety (a4), David Swapp (a5), Angus Antley (a2), Corinne Prescott (a6), David Fowler (a7), Elizabeth Kuipers (a8), Paul Bebbington (a8), Mel Slater (a8), Matthew Broome (a8) and Philip K. McGuire (a8)...

Abstract

Background

Virtual reality provides a means of studying paranoid thinking in controlled laboratory conditions. However, this method has not been used with a clinical group

Aims

To establish the feasibility and safety of using virtual reality methodology in people with an at-risk mental state and to investigate the applicability of a cognitive model of paranoia to this group

Method

Twenty-one participants with an at-risk mental state were assessed before and after entering a virtual reality environment depicting the inside of an underground train

Results

Virtual reality did not raise levels of distress at the time of testing or cause adverse experiences over the subsequent week. Individuals attributed mental states to virtual reality characters including hostile intent. Persecutory ideation in virtual reality was predicted by higher levels of trait paranoia, anxiety, stress, immersion in virtual reality, perseveration and interpersonal sensitivity

Conclusions

Virtual reality is an acceptable experimental technique for use with individuals with at-risk mental states. Paranoia in virtual reality was understandable in terms of the cognitive model of persecutory delusions

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Lucia R. Valmaggia, PhD, Department of Psychological Medicine, PO 67, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK. Email: L.Valmaggia@iop.kcl.ac.uk

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Bentall, R. P. Kinderman, P. & Kaney, S. (1994) The self, attributional processes and abnormal beliefs: towards a model of persecutory delusions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 331341.
Boyce, P. & Parker, G. (1989) Development of a scale to measure interpersonal sensitivity. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 23, 341351.
Broome, M. R. Woolley, J. B. Tabraham, P. et al (2005a) What causes the onset of psychosis? Schizophrenia Research, 79, 2334.
Broome, M. R. Woolley, J. B. Johns, L. C. et al (2005b) Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS): Implementation of a clinical service for prodromal psychosis and the at risk mental state. European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 20, 372378.
Crawford, J. R. & Henry, J. D. (2003) The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS): normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 111131.
Cruz-Neira, C. Sandin, D. J. & DeFanti, T. A. (1993) Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE. ACM Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH) Proceedings, 27, 135142.
Fenigstein, A. & Vanable, P. A. (1992) Paranoia and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 129138.
Freeman, D. & Garety, P. A. (2004) Paranoia: The Psychology of Persecutory Delusions. Psychology Press.
Freeman, D. Garety, P. A. Kuipers, E. et al (2002) A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 331347.
Freeman, D. Slater, M. Bebbington, P. E. et al (2003) Can virtual reality be used to investigate persecutory ideation? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 191, 509514.
Freeman, D. Garety, P. A. Bebbington, P. E. et al (2005) The psychology of persecutory ideation II: a virtual reality experimental study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193, 309315.
Freeman, D. Freeman, J. & Garety, P. (2006) Overcoming Paranoid and Suspicious Thoughts. Constable and Robinson.
Garety, P. A. Hemsley, D. R. & Wessely, S. (1991) Reasoning in deluded schizophrenic and paranoid patients: biases in performance on a probabilistic inference task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorder, 179, 194201.
Garety, P. A. Kuipers, E. Fowler, D. et al (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 31, 189195.
Greenwood, K. Smith, S. White, V. et al (2006) Validating a new virtual reality measure of community function in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 81 (Suppl), 122.
Heaton, R. K. Chelune, G. J. Talley, J. L. et al (1993) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Manual: Revised. Psychological Assessment Resources.
Krijn, M. Emmelkamp, P. M. Olafsson, R. P. et al (2004) Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: a review. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 259281.
Launay, G. & Slade, P. (1981) The measurement of hallucinatory predisposition in male and female prisoners. Personality and Individual Differences, 2, 221234.
Nelson, H. E. (1982) National Adult Reading Test (NART) Test Manual. Nelson.
Phillips, L. J. Yung, A. R. & McGorry, P. D. (2000) Identification of young people at risk of psychosis: validation of Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic intake criteria. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, s164169.
Slater, M. & Steed, A. (2000) A virtual presence counter. Presence–Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9, 413434.
Slater, M. Steed, A. McCarthy, J. et al (1998) The influence of body movement on subjective presence in virtual environments. Human Factors, 40, 469477.
Valmaggia, L. R. van der Gaag, M. Tarrier, N. et al (2005) Cognitive-behavioural therapy for refractory psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to atypical antipsychotic medication: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 324330.
van Beilen, M. (2004) Measuring Executive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Clinical Implications. Rijks Universitiet Groningen.
van Dael, F. Versmissen, D. Janssen, I. et al (2006) Data gathering: biased in psychosis? Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 341351.
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Valmaggia et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Figure S1

 PDF (323 KB)
323 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Valmaggia et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 Unknown (541 bytes)
541 bytes

Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis

  • Lucia R. Valmaggia (a1), Daniel Freeman (a2), Catherine Green (a3), Philippa Garety (a4), David Swapp (a5), Angus Antley (a2), Corinne Prescott (a6), David Fowler (a7), Elizabeth Kuipers (a8), Paul Bebbington (a8), Mel Slater (a8), Matthew Broome (a8) and Philip K. McGuire (a8)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis

  • Lucia R. Valmaggia (a1), Daniel Freeman (a2), Catherine Green (a3), Philippa Garety (a4), David Swapp (a5), Angus Antley (a2), Corinne Prescott (a6), David Fowler (a7), Elizabeth Kuipers (a8), Paul Bebbington (a8), Mel Slater (a8), Matthew Broome (a8) and Philip K. McGuire (a8)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *