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Schizotypal components in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia: early findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study

  • Patrick Miller (a1), Majella Byrne (a1), Ann Hodges (a1), Stephen M. Lawrie (a1), David G. Cunningham Owens (a1) and Eve C. Johnstone (a1)...

Abstract

Background

The study of high-risk groups and the development of schizophrenia.

Aims

To investigate further schizotypy, measured by the Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS), and to examine relationships between schizotypal components, psychotic symptoms on the Present State Examination (PSE) and subsequent schizophrenia.

Method

The SIS and PSE were administered on entry. Schizophrenia onsets were recorded during follow-up.

Results

The SIS yielded four principal components labelled social withdrawal, psychotic symptoms, socio-emotional dysfunction and odd behaviour. On entry, these differentiated between controls, subjects at risk for schizophrenia with and without symptoms and patients with schizophrenia. Seven of 78 subjects at risk developed schizophrenia within 39 months. This was best predicted by combining the four SIS components.

Conclusions

Schizotypy is heterogeneous and may become psychosis, particularly if several of its components are present. As psychosis develops, odd behaviour gives way to psychotic symptoms and social function deteriorates.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr P. Miller, Department of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Morningside Park, Edinburgh EH10 5HF, UK. Tel: 0131-537-6680; Fax: 0131-537-6531; e-mail: Pmmill@srvl.med.ed.ac.uk

Footnotes

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Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes

References

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Byrne, M., Hodges, A., Grant, E., et al (1999) Neuropsychological assessment of young people at high genetic risk for developing schizophrenia compared to controls: preliminary findings of the Edinburgh high risk study. Psychological Medicine, 29, 11611178.
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Hodges, A., Byrne, M., Grant, E., et al (1999) People at risk of schizophrenia. Sample characteristics of the first 100 cases in the Edinburgh High-Risk Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 547553.
Johnstone, E. C., Abukmeil, S. S., Byrne, M., et al (2000) Edinburgh high risk study – findings after four years: demographic, attainment and psychopathological issues. Schizophrenia Research, 46, 115.
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Lawrie, S. M., Whalley, H., Kestelman, J. N., et al (1999) Magnetic resonance imaging of brain in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia. Lancet, 353, 3033.
Meehl, P. (1962) Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist, 17, 827838.
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The Description and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: an Instruction Manual for the PSE and Catego Systems. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG). Geneva: WHO.
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The British Journal of Psychiatry
  • ISSN: 0007-1250
  • EISSN: 1472-1465
  • URL: /core/journals/the-british-journal-of-psychiatry
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Schizotypal components in people at high risk of developing schizophrenia: early findings from the Edinburgh High-Risk Study

  • Patrick Miller (a1), Majella Byrne (a1), Ann Hodges (a1), Stephen M. Lawrie (a1), David G. Cunningham Owens (a1) and Eve C. Johnstone (a1)...
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