Amato, P. R. & Zuo, J. (1992) Rural poverty, urban poverty, and
psychological well-being. Sociological
Bailey, S., Charlton, J., Dollamore, G., et al (1999) The ONS
Classification of Local and Health Authorities.
London: Office for
Blazer, D., George, L. K., Landerman, R., et al (1985)
Psychiatric disorders: a rural/urban
comparison. Archives of General
Burrows, R. & Bradshaw, J. (2001) Evidence-based policies and
practice. Environment and Planning A,
Costello, E. J., Keeler, G. P. & Angold, A. (2001) Poverty, race/ethnicity, and
psychiatric disorder: a study of rural children.
American Journal of Public Health, 91,
Dorling, D. (2001) Anecdote is the singular of
data. Environment and Planning A,
Goldberg, D. P. & Williams, P. (1988) The User's Guide to the General Health
Questionnaire (1st edn).
Goldstein, H. (1995) Multilevel Statistical Models.
Halpern, D. (1995) Mental Health and the Built
Taylor & Francis.
Haynes, R. & Gale, S. (2000) Deprivation and poor health in
rural areas: inequalities hidden by averages.
Health and Place, 6,
Jarvis, S. & Jenkins, S. P. (1995) Do The Poor Stay Poor? New Evidence
about Income Dynamics from the British Household Panel Survey
(Occasional paper 95-2). Colchester:
University of Essex.
Kendell, R. & Jablensky, A. (2003) Distinguishing between the
validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses.
American Journal of Psychiatry, 160,
Krueger, R. F. (1999) The structure of the common
mental disorders. Archives of General
Lehtinen, V., Michalak, E., Wilkinson, C., et al (2003)
Urban-rural differences in the occurrence of female
depressive disorder in Europe. Social Psychiatry
and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38,
Lorant, V., Deliege, D., Eaton, W., et al (2003)
Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: a
meta-analysis. American Journal of
Macintyre, S., Ellaway, A. & Cummins, S. (2002) Place effects on health: how can
we conceptualise, operationalise and measure them?
Social Science and Medicine, 55,
McCulloch, A. (2001) Ward-level deprivation and
individual social and economic outcomes in the British Household Panel
Study. Environment and Planning,
Meltzer, H., Gill, B. & Petticrew, M. (1995) The Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity
among Adults Aged 16–64 Living in Private Households in Great
Middleton, N., Gunnell, D., Frankel, S., et al (2003)
Urban-rural differences in suicide trends in young adults:
England and Wales, 1981–1998. Social Science and
O'Campo, P. (2003) Advancing theory and methods for
multilevel models of residential neighborhoods and
health. American Journal of Epidemiology,
Paykel, E. S., Abbott, R., Jenkins, R., et al (2000)
Urban-rural mental health differences in Great Britain:
findings from the National Morbidity Survey.
Psychological Medicine, 30,
Pevalin, D. (2000) Multiple applications of the
GHQ-12 in a general population sample: an investigation of long-term
retest effects. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric
Romans-Clarkson, S. E., Walton, V. A., Herbison, G. P., et al (1990)
Psychiatric morbidity among women in urban and rural New
Zealand: psycho-social correlates. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 156,
Rose, G. (1992) The Strategy of Preventive
Saunderson, T., Haynes, R. & Langford, I. H. (1998) Urban-rural variations in
suicides and undetermined deaths in England and Wales.
Journal of Public Health Medicine, 20,
Simpson, S. & Dorling, D. (1994) Those missing millions:
implications for social statistics of non-response to the 1991
Census. Journal of Social Policy,
Snijders, T. A. B. & Bosker, R. J. (1999) Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to
Basic and Advanced Multilevel Modeling.
Stansfeld, S. A., North, F. M., White, I., et al (1995) Work
characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in
London. Journal of Epidemiology and Community
Sundquist, K., Frank, G. & Sundquist, J. (2004) Urbanisation and incidence of
psychosis and depression. Follow-up study of 4.4 million women and men in
Sweden. British Journal of Psychiatry,
Taylor, M. F., Brice, J., Buck, N., et al (1999) British
Household Panel Survey User Manual Volume A: Introduction, Technical
Report and Appendices.
Colchester: University of
van Os, J. (2004) Does the urban environment cause
British Journal of Psychiatry, 184,
Vollebergh, W. A. M., Iedema, J., Bijl, R. V., et al (2001) The
structure and stability of common mental disorders.
Archives of General Psychiatry, 58,
Wainwright, N. W. J. & Surtees, P. G. (2003) Places, people, and their
physical and mental functional health. Journal of
Epidemiology and Community Health, 58,
Wainwright, N. W. J. & Surtees, P. G. (2004) Area and individual circumstances
and mood disorder prevalence. British Journal of
Wallace, M. & Denham, C. (1996) ONS Classification of London and Health
Authorities of Great Britain.
Wandersman, A. & Nation, M. (1998) Urban neighborhoods and mental
health. American Psychologist,
Wang, J. L. (2004) Rural-urban differences in the
prevalence of depression and associated impairment.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
Weich, S. & Lewis, G. (1998) Poverty, unemployment and common
mental disorders: population-based cohort study.
Weich, S., Lewis, G. & Jenkins, S. P. (2001) Income inequality and the
prevalence of common mental disorders in Britain.
British Journal of Psychiatry, 178,
Weich, S., Blanchard, M., Prince, M., et al (2002) Mental
health and the built environment: a cross-sectional survey of individual
and contextual risk factors for depression.
British Journal of Psychiatry, 180,
Weich, S., Holt, G., Twigg, L., et al (2003a)
Geographical variance in the prevalence of common mental
disorders in Britain: a multilevel investigation.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 157,
Weich, S., Twigg, L., Holt, G., et al (2003b)
Contextual risk factors for the common mental disorders in
Britain: a multilevel investigation of the effects of
place. Journal of Epidemiology and Community
Weich, S., Twigg, L., Lewis, G., et al (2005)
Geographical variation in rates of common mental disorders
in Britain: prospective cohort study. British
Journal of Psychiatry, 187,