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Risk of suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide longitudinal study

  • Kai-Lin Huang (a1), Han-Ting Wei (a2), Ju-Wei Hsu (a1), Ya-Mei Bai (a1), Tung-Ping Su (a3), Cheng-Ta Li (a1), Wei-Chen Lin (a1), Shih-Jen Tsai (a1), Wen-Han Chang (a4), Tzeng-Ji Chen (a5) and Mu-Hong Chen (a6)...

Abstract

Background

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts.

Aims

To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD.

Method

Using a nationwide, population-based insurance claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. Any suicide attempt was identified from enrolment to 31 December 2011. The association between ADHD medications and the likelihood of suicide attempt was assessed.

Results

ADHD was an independent risk factor for any suicide attempt (hazard ratio = 3.84, 95% CI = 3.19–4.62) and repeated suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 6.52, 95% CI = 4.46–9.53). Subgroup analyses of men, women, adolescents and young adults demonstrated the same trend. Methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatment did not increase the risk of suicide attempt or repeated suicide attempts. Long-term methylphenidate treatment was associated with a significantly decreased risk of repeated suicide attempts in men (hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22–0.97).

Conclusion

ADHD was a risk factor for suicide attempt and a stronger predictor of repeated suicide attempts, independent of comorbidities. Further investigation is warranted to explore the mechanism underlying the association between ADHD and suicidal behaviours.

Declaration of interest

None.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Mu-Hong Chen, MD, Department of Psychiatry, No. 201, Shih-Pai Road, Section 2, 11217, Taipei, Taiwan. Email: kremer7119@gmail.com

Footnotes

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These authors contributed equally to this article.

Footnotes

References

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Risk of suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide longitudinal study

  • Kai-Lin Huang (a1), Han-Ting Wei (a2), Ju-Wei Hsu (a1), Ya-Mei Bai (a1), Tung-Ping Su (a3), Cheng-Ta Li (a1), Wei-Chen Lin (a1), Shih-Jen Tsai (a1), Wen-Han Chang (a4), Tzeng-Ji Chen (a5) and Mu-Hong Chen (a6)...
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