American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Angold, A., Costello, E. J., Erkanl, A., et al (1999) Pubertal changes in hormone levels and depression in girls. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1043–1053.
Berg, C., Rapoport, J. & Flament, M. (1986) The Leyton Obsessional Inventory – Child Version. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 84–91.
Brown, G. W., Bifulco, A. & Harris, T. O. (1987) Life events, vulnerability and the onset of depression: some refinements. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 30–42.
Buss, A. & Plomin, R. (1984) Temperament: Early Developing Personality Traits. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Goodyer, I. M. (1995) Life events and difficulties: their nature and effects. In The Depressed Child and Adolescent: Developmental and Clinical Perspectives (ed. Goodyer, I.), pp. 171–193. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodyer, I. M. & Altham, P. M. E. (1991) Lifetime Exit Events in anxiety and depression in school age children: I. Journal of Affective Disorders, 21, 219–228.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Altham, P. M. E., et al (1996) Adrenal secretion during major depression in 8 to 16 year olds. I: Altered diurnal rhythms in salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) at presentation. Psychological Medicine, 26, 245–256.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Tamplin, A., et al (1997) Short-term outcome of major depression. II. Life events, family dysfunction and friendship difficulties as predictors of persistent disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 474–480.
Goodyer, I. M., Herbert, J., Tamplin, A., et al (2000) First-episode major depression in adolescents. Affective, cognitive and endocrine characteristics of risk status and predictors of onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 142–149.
Gunnar, M. R. (1998) Quality of early care and buffering of neuroendocrine stress reactions: potential effects on the developing human brain. Preventative Medicine, 27, 208–211.
Joels, M. & de Kloet, E. R. (1994) Mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Implications for ion permeability and transmitter systems. Progress in Neurobiology, 43, 1–36.
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., et al (1997) Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children – present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988.
Kent, L. & Vostanis, P. (1997) Detection of major and minor depression in children and adolescents: evaluation of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 566–573.
Kroboth, P. D., Salek, F. S., Pittenger, A. L., et al (1999) DHEA and DHEA–S: a review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 39, 327–348.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. & Seeley, J. R. (1995) Adolescent psychopathology: IV. Specificity of psychosocial risk factors for depression and substance abuse in older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1221–1229.
Lewinsohn, P. M., Rohde, P. & Seeley, J. R. (1998) Major depressive disorder in older adolescents: prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 18, 765–794.
Lewis, D. A. & Smith, R. E. (1983) Steroid-induced psychiatric syndromes. A report of 14 cases and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 5, 319–332.
Newcomer, J. W., Selke, G., Melson, A. K., et al (1999) Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 527–533.
Parker, C. R. (1999) Dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate production in the human adrenal during development and aging. Steroids, 64, 640–647.
Peterson, A. C., Sarigiani, P. A. & Kennedy, R. E. (1991) Adolescent depression: why more girls?
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 247–271.
Reul, J. M. & de Kloet, E. R. (1985) Two receptor systems for corticosterone in rat brain: microdistribution and differential occupation. Endocrinology, 117, 2505–2511.
Reynolds, C. & Paget, K. (1983) National normative and reliability data for the revised children's manifest anxiety scale. School Psychology Review, 12, 324–336.
Rosenberg, M. (1965) Society and the Adolescent Self Image. Princeton, NJ: Image.
Rueter, M. A., Scaramella, L., Wallace, L. E., et al (1999) First onset of depressive or anxiety disorders predicted by the longitudinal course of internalizing symptoms and parent–adolescent disagreements. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 726–732.
van Eck, M., Berkhof, H., Nicolson, N., et al (1996) The effects of perceived stress, traits, mood states, and stressful daily events on salivary cortisol. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58, 447–458.