Angold, A. (1989) Seclusion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 437–444.
British National Formulary (1989) British National Formulary, Number 16.
London: The British Medical Association and The Pharmaceutical Press.
Brizer, D., Convit, A., Krakowski, M., et al (1987) A rating scale for reporting violence on psychiatric wards. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38, 769–770.
Clinton, J. E., Sterner, S., Stelmachers, Z., et al (1987) Haloperidol for sedation of disruptive emergency patients. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 16, 319–322.
Cooper, S. J., Browne, F. W. A., McClean, K. J., et al (1983) Aggressive behaviour in a psychiatric observation ward. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 68, 386–393.
Dubin, W. R. (1988) Rapid tranquillisation: antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 49 (suppl. 12), 5–12.
Ellison, J., Hughes, D. & Kimberly, A. W. (1989) An emergency psychiatry update. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 250–260.
Goldberg, R. J., Dubin, W. R. & Fogel, B. S. (1989) Review. Behavioural emergencies, assessment of psychopharmacologic management. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 12, 233–248.
Haller, R. M. & Deluty, R. H. (1988) Assaults on staff by psychiatric inpatients, a critical review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 174–179.
Lerner, Y., Lwow, E., Levitin, A., et al (1979) Acute high dose parenteral haloperidol treatment of psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1061–1065.
McLaren, S., Browne, F. W. A. & Taylor, P. J. (1990) A study of psychotropic medication given ‘as required’ in a regional secure unit. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 732–735.
Modell, J. G., Lenox, R. H. & Weiner, S. (1985) Inpatient clinical trial of lorazepam for the treatment of manic agitation. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 109–113.
Neff, K., Denny, D. & Blachly, P. (1972) Control of severe agitation with droperidol. Diseases of the Nervous System, 33, 594–597.
Noble, P. & Rodgers, S. (1989) Violence by psychiatric in-patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 384–390.
Palmstierna, T. & Wistedt, B. (1987) Staff observation aggression scale, SOAS. Presentation and evaluation. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76, 657–663.
Rapp, M. S. (1987) Chemical restraint. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 20–21.
Resnick, M. & Burton, B. J. (1984) Droperidol vs. haloperidol in the initial management of acutely agitated patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 298–299.
Sheard, M. H. (1988) Review: clinical pharmacology of aggressive behaviour. Clinical Pharmacology, 11, 483–492.
Tardiff, K. & Sweillam, A. (1980) Assault, suicide and mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 164–169.
Tuason, V. B. (1986) A comparison of parenteral loxapine and haloperidol in hostile and aggressive acutely schizophrenic patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 47, 126–129.
World Health Organization (1978) Mental Disorders: Glossary and Guide to their Classification in Accordance with the Ninth Revision of the International Classification of Diseases
. Geneva: WHO.
Yesavage, J. A. (1982) Inpatient violence and the schizophrenic patient: an inverse correlation between danger related events and neuroleptic levels. Biological Psychiatry, 17, 1331–1337.
Yudofsky, S. C., Silver, J. M., Jackson, W., et al (1986) The overt aggression scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 35–39.