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Predictors of psychotic symptoms among young people with special educational needs

  • Andrew C. Stanfield (a1), Andrew G. McKechanie (a2), Stephen M. Lawrie (a3), Eve C. Johnstone (a4) and David G.C. Owens (a5)...



Psychotic symptoms and psychotic disorders occur at increased rates in adults with intellectual disability, including borderline intellectual functioning, compared with the general population. Little is known about the development of such symptoms in this population.


To examine whether clinical factors predictive of psychotic disorder in a familial study of schizophrenia also apply to those with intellectual disability.


Adolescents with special educational needs (SEN) were assessed with the Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS) and Childhood Behavioural Checklist (CBCL). These scores were used to prospectively divide participants based on their anticipated risk for psychotic disorder. A subsample were reassessed three times over 6 years, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).


The SEN group were more symptomatic than controls throughout (Cohen's d range for PANSS subscale scores: 0.54–1.4, all P < 0.007). Over 6 years of follow-up, those above the SIS and CBCL cut-off values at baseline were more likely than those below to display morbid positive psychotic symptoms (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI 1.3–9.0) and develop psychotic disorder (odds ratio, 11.4; 95% CI 2.6–50.1). Baseline SIS and CBCL cut-off values predicted psychotic disorder with sensitivity of 0.67, specificity of 0.85, positive predictive value of 0.26 and negative predictive value of 0.97.


Adolescents with SEN have increased psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms. The personality and behavioural features associated with later psychotic disorder in this group are similar to those in people with familial loading. Relatively simple screening measures may help identify those in this vulnerable group who do and do not require monitoring for psychotic symptoms.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence: Dr Andrew C. Stanfield, Patrick Wild Centre, Kennedy Tower, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Tipperlinn Road, Edinburgh, EH10 5HF, UK. Email:


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These authors contributed equally to the paper.



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Predictors of psychotic symptoms among young people with special educational needs

  • Andrew C. Stanfield (a1), Andrew G. McKechanie (a2), Stephen M. Lawrie (a3), Eve C. Johnstone (a4) and David G.C. Owens (a5)...
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