Addington, J. & Duchak, V. (1997) Reasons for substance use in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 329–333.
Agerbo, E., Bryne, M., Eaton, W. W., et al (2004) Marital and labor market status in the long run in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 28–33.
Ananth, I., Vandewater, S., Kamal, M., et al (1989) Missed diagnosis of substance abuse in psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 297–299.
Appleby, L. & Desai, P. (1987) Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 515–524.
Appleby, L., Cooper, J., Amos, T., et al (1999a) Psychological autopsy study of suicides by people aged under 35. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 168–174.
Appleby, L., Shaw, J., Amos, T., et al (1999b) Suicide within 12 months of contact with mental health services: national clinical survey. BMJ, 318, 1235–1239.
Arseneault, L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., et al (2000) Mental disorders and violence in a total birth cohort: results from the Dunedin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 979–986.
Arseneault, L., Cannon, M., Witton, J., et al (2004) Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 110–117.
Bebbington, P. E., Angermeyer, M., Azorin, J., et al (2005) The European Schizophrenia Cohort: a naturalistic prognostic and economic study
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 707–717.
Berman, A. H., Bergman, H., Palmstierna, T., et al (2005) Evaluation of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) in criminal justice and detoxification settings and in a Swedish population sample. European Addiction Research, 11, 22–31.
Blanchard, J. J. & Brown, S. A. (1998) Structured diagnoistic interview schedules. In Comprehensive Clinical Psychology (Vol. 3) (ed. C. R. Reynolds), pp. 97–130. Elsevier.
Bond, G. R., Drake, R. E., Mueser, K. T., et al (1997) An update on supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 48, 335–346.
Bonta, J., Law, M. & Hanson, K. (1998) The prediction of criminal and violent recidivism among mentally disordered offenders: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 123–142.
Boutros, M., Bowers, M. & Quilan, D. (1998) Chronological association between increases in drug abuse and psychosis in Conneticut State Hospitals. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 10, 48–54
Breier, A., Schreiber, J. L., Dyer, J., et al (1991) National Institute of Mental Health longitudinal study of chronic schizophrenia. Prognosis and predictors of outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 239–246.
Brekke, J. S., Prindle, C., Bae, S. W., et al (2001) Risks for individuals with schizophrenia who are living in the community. Psychiatric Services, 52, 1358–1366.
Brennan, P. A., Mednick, S. A. & Hodgins, S. (2000) Major mental disorders and criminal violence in a Danish birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 494–500.
Brown, S., Barraclough, B. & Inskip, H. (2000) Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 212–217.
Buchanan, A. & Leese, M. (2001) Detention of people with dangerous severe personality disorders: a systematic review. Lancet, 358, 1955–1959
Caldwell, C. B. & Gottesman, I. I. (1990) Schizophrenics kill themselves too: a review of risk factors for suicide. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 571–589.
Caldwell, C. B. & Gottesman, I. I. (1992) Schizophrenia – a high-risk factor for suicide: clues to risk reduction. Suicide and Life Threatening Behaviour, 22, 479–493.
Cantor-Graae, E., Nordstrom, L. G. & McNeil, T. F. (2001) Substance abuse in schizophrenia: a review of the literature and a study of correlates in Sweden. Schizophrenia Research, 48, 69–82.
Carey, K. B., Maisto, S. A., Carey, M. P., et al (2001) Measuring readiness to change substance misuse among psychiatric outpatients: reliability and validity of self report measures. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 79–88.
Caron, J., Mercier, C., Diaz, P., et al (2005) Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. Psychiatric Research, 137, 203–213.
Carr, V. J., Lewin, T. J., Neil, A. L., et al (2004) Premorbid, psychosocial and clinical predictors of the costs of schizophrenia and other psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 517–525.
Cascardi, M., Mueser, K. T., De Giralomo, J., et al (1996) Physical aggression against psychiatric inpatients by family members and partners. Psychiatric Services, 47, 531–533.
Copas, J. & Marshall, P. (1998) The offender group reconviction scale: astatistical reconviction score for use by probation officers. Applied Statistics, 47, 159–171.
Crowther, R. E., Marshall, M., Bond, G. R., et al (2001) Helping people with severe mental illness to obtain work: systematic review. BMJ, 322, 204–208.
Dixon, L., Haas, G., Wieden, P., et al (1990) Acute effects of drug abuse in schizophrenic patients' self reports. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 69–79.
Dolan, M. & Doyle, M. (2000) Violence risk prediction. Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 303–311.
Douglas, K., Webster, C., Hart, S., et al (2001) HCR-20 Violence Risk Management Companion Guide.
Mental Health, Law and Policy Insititute, Simon Fraser University. Department of Mental Health Law and Policy, Unitversity of South Florida.
Drake, R. E., Wallach, M. A. & Hoffman, J. S. (1989) Housing instability and homelessness among aftercare patients of an urban state hospital. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 46–51.
Drake, R. E., Osher, F. C., Noordsy, D. L., et al (1990) Diagnosis of alcohol use disorders in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 57–67.
Drake, R. E., Wallach, M. A., Teague, G. B., et al (1991) Housing instability and homelessness among rural schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 330–336.
Drake, R. E., Mc Hugo, G. J., Becker, D. R., et al (1996) The New Hampshire study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psycholology, 64, 391–399.
Drake, R. E., McHugo, G. J., Bebout, R. R., et al (1999) A randomized clinical trial of supported employment for inner-citypatientswith severe mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 627–633.
Duke, P. J., Pantelis, C. & Barnes, T. R. (1994) South Westminster schizophrenia survey. Alcohol use and its relationship to symptoms, tardive dyskinesia and illness onset. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 630–636.
Duke, P. J., Pantellis, C., McPhillips, M. A., et al (2001) Comorbid non-alcohol substance misuse among people with schizophrenia. Epidemiological study in central London. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 509–513.
Elbogen, E. B., Van Dorn, R. A., Swanson, J. W.
et al (2006) Treatment engagement and violence risk in mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 354–360.
Elliot, D. A., Huizinga, D. & Morse, B. J. (1986) Self-reported violent offending: a descriptive analysis of juvenile violent offenders and their offending careers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 472–513.
Eronen, M., Hakola, P. & Tiihonen, J. (1996) Mental disorders and homicidal behaviour in Finland. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 497–501.
Fazel, S. & Grann, M. (2006) Thepopulation impact of severe mental illness on violent crime. American Journal of Psychiatry
Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Lynskey, M. T., et al (2003) Early reactions to cannabis predict later dependence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 1033–1039.
Fichter, M., Quadflieg, N., Koniarczyk, M., et al (1999) Mental illness in homeless men and women in Munich. Psychiatrische Praxis, 26, 76–84.
Folsom, S. P., Hawthorne, W., Lindamer, L., et al (2005) Prevalence and risk factors for homelessness and utilization of mental health services among 10, 340 patients with serious mental illness in a large public mental health system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 370–376.
Gold, J. M., Godberg, R. W., McNary, S. W., et al (2002) Cognitive correlates of job tenure among patients with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1395–1402.
Gold, P. B., Meisler, N., Santos, A. B., et al (2006) Randomized trial of supported employment integrated with assertive community treatmentfor rural adults with severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 32, 378–395.
Gossop, M., Darke, S., Griffiths, P., et al (1995) The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS): psychometric properties of the SDS in English and Australian samples of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine users
Addiction, 90, 607–614.
Gray, N. S., Snowden, R. J., MacCulloch, S., et al (2004) Relative efficacy of criminological, clinical, and personality measures of future risk of offending in mentally disordered offenders: a comparative study of HCR–20, PCL: SV, and OGRS. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 523–530.
Haddock, G., Barrowclough, C., Tarrier, N., et al (2003) Cognitive–behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse: 18-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 418–426.
Hambrecht, M. & Hafner, H. (1996) Substance abuse and the onset of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 40, 1155–1163.
Harrison, G., Hopper, K., Craig, T., et al (2001) Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15-and 25-year international follow-up study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 506–517.
Hart, S. D., Cox, D. N. & Hare, R. D. (1995) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Screening Version
. Multi-Health Systems.
Haw, C., Hawton, K., Sutton, L., et al (2005) Schzophren a and delberate self-harm: a systematc revew of risk factors. Suicide and Life Threatening Behaviour, 35, 50–62.
Hawton, K., Rodham, K., Evans, E., et al (2002) Delberate self harm in adolescents: selfreport survey in schools in England. BMJ, 325, 1207–1211.
Hawton, K., Sutton, L., Haw, C., et al (2005) Schizophreniaand suicide: systematic review of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 9–20.
Healy, D., Harris, M., Tranter, R., et al (2006) Lifetime suicide rates in treated schizophrenia: 1875–1924 and 1994–1998 cohorts compared. British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 223–228.
Hibbs, J. R., Benner, L., Klugman, L., et al (1994) Mortality in a cohort of homeless adults in Philadelphia. New England Journal of Medicine, 331, 304–309.
Hiday, V. A., Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J. W., et al (2002) Impact of outpatient commitment on victimization of people with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1403–1411.
Hodgins, S. (1992) Mental disorder, intellectual deficiency and crime: evidence from a birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 476–483.
Hoff, R. A. & Rosenheck, R. A. (1999) The cost of treating substance abuse patients with and without comorbid psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1309–1315.
Hunt, G. E., Bergen, J. & Bahir, M. (2002) Medication compliance and comorbid substance misuse in schizophrenia: impact on community survival 4 years after relapse. Schizophrenia Research, 54, 253–264.
Jablensky, A., Sartorius, N., Ernberg, G., et al (1992) Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organisation ten-country study. Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement, 20, 1–97.
Janowsky, D. S., El-Yousef, M. K., Davis, J. M., et al (1973) Provocation of schizophrenic symptoms by intravenous administration of methylphenidate. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 185–191.
Kirkpatrick, B., Amador, X., Flaum, M., et al (1996) The deficit syndrome in the DSM –IV field trial: alcohol and other drug abuse. Schizophrenia Research, 20, 69–77.
Kroner, D. G. (2005) Issues in violent risk assessment: lessons learned and future directions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 231–235.
Lam, J. A. & Rosenheck, R. (1998) The effect of victimization on clinical outcomes of homeless persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 49, 678–683.
Lamb, H. R. (1982) Young adult chronic patients: the new drifters. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 33, 465–468.
Latimer, E. A., Lecomte, T., Becker, D. R., et al (2006) Generalisability of the individual placement and support model of supported employment: results of a Canadian randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 65–73.
Lehman, A. F., Kernan, E., DeForge, B. R., et al (1995) Effects of homelessness on the quality of life of persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 46, 922–926.
Lehman, A. F., Goldberg, R., Dixon, L. B., et al (2002) Improving employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illnesses. Archives of General Psychiatry.
Lewine, R. R. (2005) Social class of origin, lost potential, and hopelessness in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 76, 329–335.
Ley, A., Jeffrey, D. P., McClaren, S., et al (2000) Treatment programmes for people with both severe mental illness and substance misuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, .
Liberman, R. P., Mueser, K. T., Wallace, C. J., et al (1986) Training skills in the psychiatrically disabled: learning coping and competence. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 631–647.
Marsden, J., Gossop, M., Stewart, D., et al (1998) The Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP): a brief instrument for assessing treatment outcome. Addiction, 93, 18571867.
McCreadie, R. G. (2002) Use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with scizophrenia: case-control study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181, 321–325.
McGurk, S. R. & Mueser, K. T. (2004) Cognitive functioning, symptoms and work in supported environment: a review and heuristic model. Schizophrenia Research, 70, 147–174.
Mechanic, D., Blider, S. & McAlpine, D. D. (2002) Employing persons with serious mental illness. Health Affairs (Millwood), 21, 242–253.
Miles, C. P. (1977) Conditions predisposing to suicide: areview. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 164, 231–246.
Mills, J. F. (2005) Advances in the assessment and prediction of interpersonal violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 236–241.
Moran, P. & Hodgins, S. (2004) The correlates of comorbid antisocial personality disorder in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30, 791–802.
Mueser, K. T. & Drake, R. E. (1998) Dual diagnosis: a review of etiological theories. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 717–734.
Mueser, K. T., Clark, R. E., Haines, M., et al (2004) The Hartford study of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 479–490.
Munk-Jorgensen, P. & Mortensen, P. B. (1992) Social outcome in schizophrenia: a 13-year follow-up. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 27, 129–134.
Nordentoft, M., Jeppesen, P., Abel, M., et al (2002) OPUS study: suicidal behaviour, suicidal ideation and hopelessness among patients with first-episode psychosis. One-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181 (suppl. 43), s98–106.
Olfson, M., Mechanic, D., Hansell, S., et al (1999) Prediction of homelessness within three months of discharge among inpatients with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 50, 667–673.
Oliver, J. (1991) The social care directive: development of a quality of life profile for use in community services for the mentally ill. Social Workand Social Sciences Review, 3, 53–60.
Opler, L. A., White, L., Caton, C. L., et al (2001) Gender differences in the relationship of homelessness to symptom severity, substance abuse, and neuroleptic noncompliance in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 449–456.
Palmer, B. A., Pankratz, V. S. & Bostwick, J. M. (2005) The lifetime risk of suicide in schizophrenia: a reexamination. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 247–253.
Platt, S., Bille-Brahe, U., Kerkhof, A., et al (1992) Parasuicide in Europe: the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. I. Introduction and preliminary analysis for 1989. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 85, 97–104.
Powell, J., Geddes, J., Howton, K., et al (2000) Suicide in psychiatric hospital in-patients. Risk factors and their predictive power. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 266272.
Pristach, C. A. & Smith, C. M. (1996) Self reported effects of alcohol use on symptoms of schizophrenia, Psychiatric Services
Reiger, D. A., Farmer, M. E., Rae, D. S., et al (1990) Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse: results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) study. JAMA, 264, 2511–2518.
Rosenheck, R. A. (2006) Outcomes, costs and policy caution: a commentary on the cost utility of the latest antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1074–1076.
Sainsbury, P. & Jenkins, J. S. (1982) The accuracy of officially reported suicide statistics for purposes of epidemiological research. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 36, 43–48.
Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (1998) Keys to Engagement: Re-View of Care for People with Severe Mental Illness who are Hard to Engage with Services.
Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health.
Saunders, J. B., Aasland, O. G., Babor, T. F., et al (1993) Developement of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II. Addiction, 88, 791–804.
Scott, H., Johnson, S., Menezes, P., et al (1998) Substance misuse and risk of aggression and offending among the severely mentally ill. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 345–350.
Seibyl, J., Satel, S., Anthony, D., et al (1993) Effects of cocaine on hospital course in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 31–37.
Serper, M. R., Alpert, M. & Trujillo, J. (1996) Recent cocaine use decreases negative signs in acute schizophrenia: a case study over two consecutive admissions. Biological Psychiatry, 39, 816–818.
Sevy, S., Robinson, D. G., Holloway, S., et al (2001) Correlates of substance misuse in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104, 367–374.
Silver, E. (2002) Mental disorder and violent victimization: the mediating role of involvement in conflicted social relationships. Criminology, 40, 191–211.
Silver, E., Arseneault, L., Langley, J., et al (2005) Mental disorder and violent victimization in a total birth cohort. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 2015–2021.
Skegg, K. (2005) Self-harm. Lancet, 366, 1471–1483.
Slade, M. (2002) What outcomes to measure in routine mental health services, and how to assess them: a systematic review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 36, 743–753.
Soyka, M., Albus, M., Kathmann, N., et al (1993) Prevalence of alcohol and drug abuse in schizophrenic inpatients. European Archives in Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 242, 362–372.
Speechley, M. & Stavraky, K. M. (1991) The adequacy of suicide statistics for use in epidemiology and public health. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 82, 38–42.
Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., et al (1994) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorder –Patient Edition.
New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Steadman, H. J., Mulvey, E. P., Monahan, J., et al (1998) Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 1–9.
Swanson, J., Estroff, S., Swartz, M., et al (1997) Violence and severe mental disorder in clinical and community populations: the effects of psychotic symptoms, comorbidity, and lack of treatment. Psychiatry, 60, 1–22.
Swanson, J., Van Dorn, R., Monahan, J., et al (2006) Violence and leveraged community treatment for persons with mental disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1404–1411.
Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J. W. & Hannon, M. J. (2003) Detection of illicit substance use in persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatric Services, 54, 891–895.
Swartz, M. S., Wagner, R., Swanson, J. W., et al (2006) Substance use in persons with schizophrenia. Baseline preva ence andcorre ates from the NIMH CATIE Study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194, 164–172.
Swofford, C. D., Kasckow, J. W., Scheller-Gilkey, G., et al (1996) Substance use: a powerful predictor of relapse in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 20, 145–151.
Tansella, M. & Thornicroft, G. (1998) Aconceptual framework for mental health services: the matrix model. Psychological Medicine, 28, 503–508.
Taylor, P. J. (1998) When symptoms of psychosis drive serious violence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, S47–S54.
Teeson, M., Hodder, T. & Buhrich, N. (2004) Psychiatric disorders in homeless men and women in inner Sydney. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 162–168.
Teplin, L. A. (1990) The prevalence of severe mental disorder among urban jail detainees: comparison with the epidemiologic catchment area program. American Journal of Public Health, 80, 663–669.
Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. H., et al (2005) Crime victimization in adults with severe mental illness: comparison with the National Crime Victimization Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 911–921.
Tiihonen, J., Isohanni, M., Räsänen, P., et al (1997) Specific major mental disorders and criminality: a 26-year prospective study of the 1966 northern Finland birth cohort. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 840–845.
Wallace, C., Mullen, P. E. & Burgess, P. (2004) Criminal offending in schizophrenia over a 25-year period marked by deinstitutionalization and increasing prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 716–727.
Ward, J. C. & Dow, M. G. (1995) Functional Assessment Rating Scale.
Department of Community Mental Health, University of South Florida.
Wenzel, S. L., Koegel, P. & Gelberg, L. (2000) Antecedents of physical and sexual victimization among homeless women: a comparison to homeless men. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 367–390.
World Health Organization (1992) The Life Chart.
Wong, S. & Gordon, A. (2000) Violence Risk Scale.
Regional Psychiatric Centre, Saskatoon.