Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Neurocognitive dimensions characterising patients with first-episode psychosis

  • S. Friis (a1), K. Sundet (a2), B. R. Rund (a1), P. Vaglum (a1) and T. H. Mcglashan (a3)...

Abstract

Background

Assessment of neurocognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is hampered by the multitude of tests used in the literature.

Aims

We aimed to identify the main dimensions of an assessment battery for patients with first-episode psychosis and to estimate the relationship between dimension scores and gender, age, education, diagnosis and symptoms.

Method

Eight frequently used neuropsychological tests were used. We tested 219 patients 3 months after start of therapy or at remission, whichever occurred first.

Results

We identified five dimensions: working memory (WM); verbal learning (VL); executive function (EF); impulsivity (Im); and motor speed (MS). Significant findings were that the MS score was higher for men, and the WM and VL scores were correlated with years of education.

Conclusions

Neurocognitive function in first-episode psychosis is described by at least five independent dimensions.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Neurocognitive dimensions characterising patients with first-episode psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Neurocognitive dimensions characterising patients with first-episode psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Neurocognitive dimensions characterising patients with first-episode psychosis
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Professor Svein Friis, Department of Research and Education, Division of Psychiatry, Ullevål University Hospital, N-0407 Oslo, Norway Tel: +47 22 11 84 40; fax: +47 22 11 78 48; e-mail: svein.friis@psykiatri.uio.no

Footnotes

Hide All

Presented in part at the European First Episode Schizophrenia Network Meeting, Whistler BC, Canada, 27 April, 2001.

This paper is part of the Tidlig Intervensjon ved Psykoser (TIPS: Early Intervention in Psychosis) project with the following research group: T.H.M.; PV.; S.F.; Ulrik Haahr; Jan Olav Johannessen; Tor Ketil Larsen; Ingrid Melle; Stein Opjordsmoen; Bj⊘rn Rishovd Rund; and Erik Simonsen.

Declaration of interest

The study was supported by the Norwegian Research Council and by NIMH 01654 (T.H.M.).

Footnotes

References

Hide All
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Bechtoldt, H. P., Benton, A. L. & Fogel, M. L. (1962) An application of factor analysis in neuropsychology. Psychological Record, 12, 147156.
Bell, M. D., Conway, T. C., Kaplan, E., et al (1997) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test dimensions in schizophrenia: Factorial, predictive, and divergent validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 19, 933941.
Bilder, R. M., Goldman, R. S., Robinson, D., et al (2000) Neuropsychology of first-episode schizophrenia: Initial characterization and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 549559.
Chapman, L. J. & Chapman, J. P. (1978) The measurement of differential deficits. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 14, 303311.
Conklin, H. M., Curtis, C. E., Katsanis, J., et al (2000) Verbal working memory impairment in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives: evidence from the Digit Span Task. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 275277.
Cornblatt, B. A., Lenzenweger, M. F. & Erlenmeyer-Kimling, M. (1989) The Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs version. II: Contrasting attentional profiles in schizophrenic and depressed patients. Psychiatry Research, 29, 6585.
Delis, D. C., Kramer, J. H., Kaplan, E., et al (1987) The California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT): Manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Delis, D. C., Freeland, J., Kramer, J. H., et al (1988) Integrating clinical assessment with cognitive neuroscience: Construct validation of the California Verbal Learning Test. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 123130.
Green, M. F. (1998) Schizophrenia from a Neurocognitive Perspective. Probing the Impenetrable Darkness. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Green, M. F. Neuchterlein, K. & Mintz, J. (1994a) Backward masking in schizophrenia and mania. I: Specifying a mechanism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 934944.
Green, M. F. Neuchterlein, K. & Mintz, J. (1994b) Backward masking in schizophrenia and mania. II: Specifying visual channels. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 945951.
Heaton, R. K., Chelune, G. J., Talley, J. L., et al (1993) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Manual. Revised and Expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Resources.
Heaton, R. K., Grant, I., Butters, N., et al (1995) The HNRC 500–neuropsychology of HIV infection at different disease stages. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 231251.
Johannessen, J. O., McGlashan, T. H., Larsen, T. K., et al (2001) Early detection strategies for untreated first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 51, 3946.
Kareken, D. A., Moberg, P. J. & Gur, R. D. (1996) Proactive inhibition and semantic organization: Relationship with verbal memory inpatients with schizophrenia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2, 486493.
Koren, D., Seidman, L. J., Harrison, R. H., et al (1998) Factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: Dimension of deficit in schizophrenia. Neuropsychology, 12, 289302.
Larsen, T. K., McGlashan, T. H., Johannessen, J. O., et al (2001) Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis: changes in patient characteristics at treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 19171919.
Laws, K. R. (1999) A meta-analytic review of Wisconsin Card Sort studies in schizophrenia: General intellectual deficit in disguise? Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 4, 135.
Lezak, M. D. (1995) Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd edn). New York: Oxford University Press.
Lieh-Make, F. & Lee, R. W. H. (1997) Cognitive deficit measures in schizophrenia: Factor structure and clinical correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 3946.
Oltmanns, P. F. & Neale, J. N. (1975) Schizophrenic performance when distractors are present: attention deficit or differential task difficulty? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 205209.
Perry, W., Heaton, R. K., Potterat, E., et al (2001) Working memory in schizophrenia: Transient online storage versus executive functioning. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 27, 157176.
Rund, B. R. (1983) The effect of distraction on focal attention in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenic patients compared to normals and non-psychotic psychiatric patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, 241250.
Rund, B. R. (1993) Backward-masking performance in chronic and non-chronic schizophrenics, affectively disturbed patients, and normal control subjects. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 7481.
Rund, B. R. & Borg, N. E. (1999) Cognitive deficits and cognitive training in schizophrenic patients: a review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100, 8595.
Rund, B. R., Øie, M. & Sundet, K. (1996) Backward masking deficit in adolescents with schizophrenic disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 11541157.
Spaulding, W., Hargrove, S., Crinean, W., et al (1981) Microcomputer-based laboratory for psychopathology research in rural settings. Behaviour Research Methods and Instrumentations, 13, 616623.
Spreen, O. & Benton, A. L. (1969) Neurosensory Center Comprehensive Examination for Aphasia. Manual and Instructions (NCCEA). Victoria, BC: University of Victoria.
Spreen, O. & Strauss, E. (1998) A Compendium of Neuropsychological Tests: Administration, Norms, and Commentary (2nd edn). New York: Oxford University Press.
Vanderploeg, R. D., Schinka, J. A. & Retzlaff, P. (1994) Relationships between measures of auditory verbal learning and executive functioning. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 16, 243252.
Wiegner, S. & Donders, J. (1999) Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test after traumatic brain injury. Assessment, 6, 179187.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Neurocognitive dimensions characterising patients with first-episode psychosis

  • S. Friis (a1), K. Sundet (a2), B. R. Rund (a1), P. Vaglum (a1) and T. H. Mcglashan (a3)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *