1Torre, LA, Bray, F, Siegel, RL, Ferlay, J, Lortet-Tieulent, J, Jemal, A. Global cancer statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin 2015; 65: 87–108.
2Li, Q, Du, X, Zhang, Y, Yin, G, Zhang, G, Walss-Bass, C, et al. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2017; 251: 131–6.
3Miyauchi, M, Kishida, I, Suda, A, Shiraishi, Y, Fujibayashi, M, Taguri, M, et al. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients. BMC Psychiatry 2017; 17: 87.
4Morris, A. Diabetes: linking diabetes and schizophrenia. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017; 13: 126.
5Catts, VS, Catts, SV, O'Toole, BI, Frost, AD. Cancer incidence in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives - a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2008; 117: 323–36.
6Ozbey, U, Yuce, H, Namli, M, Elkiran, T. Investigation of differences in P53 gene polymorphisms between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients in the Turkish population. Genet Res Int 2011; 2011: 483851.
7Lichtermann, D, Ekelund, J, Pukkala, E, Tanskanen, A, Lonnqvist, J. Incidence of cancer among persons with schizophrenia and their relatives. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58: 573–8.
8McGinty, EE, Zhang, Y, Guallar, E, Ford, DE, Steinwachs, D, Dixon, LB, et al. Cancer incidence in a sample of Maryland residents with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2012; 63: 714–7.
9Lawrence, D, Holman, CD, Jablensky, AV, Threlfall, TJ, Fuller, SA. Excess cancer mortality in Western Australian psychiatric patients due to higher case fatality rates. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000; 101: 382–8.
10Barak, Y, Achiron, A, Mandel, M, Mirecki, I, Aizenberg, D. Reduced cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia. Cancer 2005; 104: 2817–21.
11Dalton, SO, Mellemkjaer, L, Thomassen, L, Mortensen, PB, Johansen, C. Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969-1993. Schizophr Res 2005; 75: 315–24.
12Goldacre, MJ, Kurina, LM, Wotton, CJ, Yeates, D, Seagroat, V. Schizophrenia and cancer: an epidemiological study. Br J Psychiatry 2005; 187: 334–8.
13Grinshpoon, A, Barchana, M, Ponizovsky, A, Lipshitz, I, Nahon, D, Tal, O, et al. Cancer in schizophrenia: is the risk higher or lower? Schizophr Res 2005; 73: 333–41.
14Chou, FH, Tsai, KY, Su, CY, Lee, CC. The incidence and relative risk factors for developing cancer among patients with schizophrenia: a nine-year follow-up study. Schizophr Res 2011; 129: 97–103.
15Ji, J, Sundquist, K, Ning, Y, Kendler, KS, Sundquist, J, Chen, X. Incidence of cancer in patients with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives: a population-based study in Sweden. Schizophr Bull 2013; 39: 527–36.
16Lin, CY, Lane, HY, Chen, TT, Wu, YH, Wu, CY, Wu, VY. Inverse association between cancer risks and age in schizophrenic patients: a 12-year nationwide cohort study. Cancer Sci 2013; 104: 383–90.
17Osborn, DP, Limburg, H, Walters, K, Petersen, I, King, M, Green, J, et al. Relative incidence of common cancers in people with severe mental illness. Cohort study in the United Kingdom THIN primary care database. Schizophr Res 2013; 143: 44–9.
18Raviv, G, Laufer, M, Baruch, Y, Barak, Y. Risk of prostate cancer in patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2014; 55: 1639–42.
19Borenstein, M, Higgins, JP, Hedges, LV, Rothstein, HR. Basics of meta-analysis: I(2) is not an absolute measure of heterogeneity. Res Synth Methods 2017; 8: 5–18.
20Wells, GA, Shea, B, O'Connell, D, Peterson, J, Welch, V, Losos, M, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Nonrandomised Studies in Meta-Analyses. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2010 (http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp).
21Iorio, A, Spencer, FA, Falavigna, M, Alba, C, Lang, E, Burnand, B, et al. Use of GRADE for assessment of evidence about prognosis: rating confidence in estimates of event rates in broad categories of patients. BMJ 2015; 350: h870.
22Higgins, J, Green, S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011 (www.cochranehandbook.org).
23Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG. Quantifying heterogeneity in a meta-analysis. Stat Med 2002; 21: 1539–58.
24Patsopoulos, NA, Evangelou, E, Ioannidis, JP. Sensitivity of between-study heterogeneity in meta-analysis: proposed metrics and empirical evaluation. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37: 1148–57.
25Egger, M, Davey Smith, G, Schneider, M, Minder, C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997; 315: 629–34.
26Huang, J, Zhao, D, Liu, Z, Liu, F. Repurposing psychiatric drugs as anti-cancer agents. Cancer Lett 2018; 419: 257–65.
27Torgersen, T, Rosseland, LA, Malt, UF. Coding guidelines for ICD-9 section on mental disorders and reliability of chart clinical diagnoses. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990; 81(1): 62–7.
28Wang, Y, Wang, L, Li, X, Liu, B, Zhao, Q, Chen, P, et al. Polymorphisms of XRCC4 are involved in reduced colorectal cancer risk in Chinese schizophrenia patients. BMC Cancer 2010; 10: 523.
29Rizos, E, Siafakas, N, Koumarianou, A, Katsantoni, E, Filippopoulou, A, Ntounas, P, et al. miR-183 as a molecular and protective biomarker for cancer in schizophrenic subjects. Oncol Rep 2012; 28: 2200–4.
30Zuber, V, Jonsson, EG, Frei, O, Witoelar, A, Thompson, WK, Schork, AJ, et al. Identification of shared genetic variants between schizophrenia and lung cancer. Sci Rep 2018; 8: 674.
31Leonard, S, Adams, CE. Smoking cessation and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 1877.
32Huang, HC, Lua, AC, Wu, LS, Wu, BJ, Lee, SM, Liu, CZ. Cigarette smoking has a differential effect on the plasma level of clozapine in Taiwanese schizophrenic patients associated with the CYP1A2 gene -163A/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Psychiatr Genet 2016; 26: 172–7.