Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Links Between Early Post-partum Mood and Post-natal Depression

  • Patricia Hannah (a1), Diana Adams (a1), Angela Lee (a1), Vivette Glover (a1) and M. Sandler (a1)...

Abstract

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to rate 217 patients at five days and six weeks post-partum. There was a highly significant positive correlation between the two scores, together with similar symptom profiles. Of the 25 women who suffered postnatal depression (6–week EPDS score ≥13), 17 had similar symptoms in the first week postpartum (5–day EPDS score ≥10). Low birth weight of the baby, delivery by Caesarean section, a delivery much more difficult than expected, and bottle feeding were all significantly associated with a high EPDS score in the first week post-partum. Bottle feeding and delivery by Caesarean section were the only factors associated with depression at the sixth week. A recollection of low mood after a previous birth was also associated with post-natal depression after the current birth. This, together with an EPDS score of 13 or more at five days post-partum, increased the risk of post-natal depression at six weeks 85–fold.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence

References

Hide All
Ballinger, C. B., Buckley, D. E., Naylor, G. J., et al (1979) Emotional disturbance following childbirth: clinical findings and urinary excretion of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate). Psychological Medicine, 9, 293300.
Condon, J. T. & Watson, T. L. (1987). The maternity blues: exploration of a psychological hypothesis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 76, 164171.
Cooper, J. P., Campbell, E. A., Day, A., et al (1988) Non-psychiatric disorder after childbirth – a prospective study of prevalence, incidence, course and nature. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 799806.
Cox, J. L., Connor, Y. & Kendell, R. E. (1982) Prospective study of psychiatric disorders of childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 111117.
Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M. & Sagovsky, R. (1987) Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10–item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782786.
Dean, C. & Kendell, R. E. (1981) The symptomatology of puerperal illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 128133.
Gennaro, S. (1988) Postpartal anxiety and depression in mothers of term and preterm infants. Nursing Research, 37, 8285.
Hapgood, C. C., Elkind, G. S. & Wright, J. J. (1988) Maternity blues: phenomena and relationship to later postpartum depression. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 22, 299306.
Harding, J. J. (1989) Postpartum psychiatric disorders: a review. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30, 109112.
Kumar, R. & Robson, K. M. (1978) Neurotic disturbances during pregnancy and the puerperium: preliminary report of a prospective study of 119 primiparae. In Mental Illness in Pregnancy and the Puerperium (ed. Sandler, M.), pp. 4051. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kumar, R. & Robson, K. M. (1984) A prospective study of emotional disorders in childbearing women. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 3547.
Meares, R., Grimwade, J. & Wood, C. (1976) A possible relationship between anxiety and pregnancy and puerperal depression. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 20, 605610.
Melges, F. T. (1968) Postpartum psychiatric syndromes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 95.
Nott, P. N. (1987) Extent, timing and persistence of emotional disorders following childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 523527.
Nott, P. N., Franklin, M., Armitage, C., et al (1976) Hormonal changes and mood in the early puerperium. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 379383.
O'Hara, M. W., Rehm, L. P. & Campbell, S. B. (1982) Predicting depressive symptomatology: cognitive-behavioral models and postpartum depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 457461.
O'Hara, M. W., Neunaber, D. J. & Zekoski, E. M. (1984) Prospective study of postpartum depression: prevalence, course and predictive factors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 158171.
Pitt, B. (1968) Atypical depression following childbirth. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 13251335.
Pitt, B. (1973) Maternity blues. British Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 431433.
Playfair, H. R. & Gowers, J. I. (1981) Depression following childbirth – a search for predictive signs. Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 31, 201208.
Stein, A., Cooper, P. J., Campbell, E. A., et al (1989) Social adversity and perinatal complications: their relation to postnatal depression. British Medical Journal, 29, 10731074.
Stein, G. S. (1980) The pattern of mental change and body weight change in the first postpartum week. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 165171.
Tod, E. D. M. (1964) Puerperal depression – a prospective epidemiological study. Lancet, ii, 12641266.
Watson, J. P., Elliott, S. A., Rugg, A. J., et al (1984) Psychiatric disorder in pregnancy and the first postnatal year. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 453462.
Whiffen, V. E. (1988) Vulnerability to postpartum depression: a prospective multivariate study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 467474.
Wolkind, S., Zajicek, E., Coleman, E., et al (1980) Continuities in maternal depression. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 1, 167182.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Links Between Early Post-partum Mood and Post-natal Depression

  • Patricia Hannah (a1), Diana Adams (a1), Angela Lee (a1), Vivette Glover (a1) and M. Sandler (a1)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *