Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study

  • Majella Byrne (a1), Esben Agerbo (a1) and Preben Bo Mortensen (a1)

Abstract

Background

The risk for schizophrenia has been associated with a family history of this and other psychiatric disorders. The relationship between age at first contact and family history of psychiatric illness is not certain.

Aims

To estimate the risks for schizophrenia associated with a range of psychiatric diagnoses in family members and to investigate the relationship between these risks and age at first contact for schizophrenia.

Method

A nested case–control study design was employed. Psychiatric admission data and socio-economic data were available for 7704 cases admitted between 1981 and 1998 in Denmark, 192 590 gender- and age-matched controls, and for the parents and siblings of all subjects.

Results

Controlling for socio-economic factors, risk for schizophrenia was associated with a family history of all psychiatric disorders except substance misuse and independently with a family history of suicide. The risk for schizophrenia associated with a family history of psychiatric disorders decreased as age at first contact increased.

Conclusions

Risk for schizophrenia is associated with a range of psychiatric disorders in family members and these risks are not constant across the risk period.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Majella Byrne, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Taasingegade 1, Aarhus 8000 C, Denmark. E-mail: mb@ncrr.dk

Footnotes

Hide All

Presented in part at the European First Episode Schizophrenia Network Meeting, Whistler BC, Canada, 27 April 2001.

Declaration of Interest

None.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Albus, M., Scherer, J., Hueber, S., et al (1994) The impact of familial loading on gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 132134.
Alda, M., Ahrens, B., Lit, W., et al (1996) Age of onset in familial and sporadic schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 447450.
Altman, D. G. (1991) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London: Chapman and Hall.
Cannon, T. D., Mednick, S. A., Parnas, J., et al (1993) Developmental brain abnormalities in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers. I. Contributions of genetic and perinatal factors. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 551564.
Clayton, D. & Hills, M. (1993) Statistical Models in Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Danmarks Statistiks (1991) IDA-en integreret database for arbejdsmarkedsforskning. København: Danmarks Statistik trykkeri.
Flanders, W. D. & Louv, W. C. (1986) The exposure odds ratio in nested case–controlstudieswith competing risks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124, 684692.
Goldstein, J. M., Faraone, S. V., Chen, W. J., et al (1990) Sex differences in the familial transmission of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 819826.
Gottesman, I. I. (1991) Schizophrenia Genesis. The Origins of Madness. New York: W. H. Freeman.
Hosmer, D. & Lemeshow, S. (1989) Applied Logistic Regression. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Jablensky, A. & Cole, S. W. (1997) Is the earlier age at onset of schizophrenia in males a confounded finding? Results from a cross-cultural investigation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 234240.
Jablensky, A. & Eaton, W. W. (1995) Schizophrenia. Baillière's Clinical Psychiatry, 1, 283306.
Kendler, K. S. & MacLean, C. J. (1990) Estimating familial effects on age at onset and liability to schizophrenia. I. Results of a large sample family study. Genetic Epidemiology, 7, 409417.
Kendler, K. S., Tsuang, M. T. & Hays, P. (1987) Age at onset in schizophrenia. A familial perspective. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 881890.
Kendler, K. S., Karkowski-Shuman, L. & Walsh, D. (1996) Age at onset in schizophrenia and risk of illness in relatives. Results from the Roscommon Family Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 213218.
Maier, W., Rietschel, M., Lichtermann, D., et al (1999) Family and genetic studies on the relationship of schizophrenia to affective disorders. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (suppl. 4), 5761.
Malig, C. (1996) The civil registration system in Denmark. Technical Papers IIVRS, 66, 16.
McGrath, J. J., Hearle, J., Jenner, L., et al (1999) The fertility and fecundity of patients with psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 99, 441446.
Mortensen, P. B., Pederson, C. B., Westergaard, T., et al (1999) Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 603608.
Munk-Jorgensen, P. (1986) Schizophrenia in Denmark: incidence and utilization of psychiatric institutions. Acta Psychiatrica Scandanavica, 73, 172180.
Munk-Jorgensen, P. & Mortensen, P. B. (1997) The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Danish Medical Bulletin, 44, 8284.
Pedersen, C. B. & Mortensen, P. B. (2001) Family history, place and season of birth as risk factors for schizophrenia in Denmark: a replication and reanalysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 179, 4652.
Pulver, A. E. & Liang, K. Y. (1991) Estimating effects of proband characteristics on familial risk: II. The association between age at onset and familial risk in the Maryland schizophrenia sample. Genetic Epidemiology, 8, 339350.
Pulver, A. E., Brown, C. H., Wolyniec, P., et al (1990) Schizophrenia: age at onset, gender and familial risk. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 82, 344351.
SAS Institute (1997) The PhReg procedure. In SAS/ STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements through Release 6.12. pp. 871948. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.
Sham, P. C., MacLean, C. J. & Kendler, K. (1994) A typological model of schizophrenia based on age at onset, sex and familial morbidity. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 135141.
Shimizu, A., Kurachi, M., Yamaguchi, N., et al (1988) Does family history of schizophrenia influence age at onset of schizophrenia? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 716719.
Suvisaari, J. M., Haukka, J., Tanskanen, A., et al (1998) Age at onset and outcome in schizophrenia are related to the degree of familial loading. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 494500.
Sundhedsstyrelsen (1992) [The Danish National Board of Health]. Dodsårsagerne 1990 [Cause of Death in Denmark, 1990]. Copenhagen: Sundhedsstyrelsen [The Danish National Board of Health].
World Health Organization (1967) Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death (ICD–8). Geneva: World Health Organization.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study

  • Majella Byrne (a1), Esben Agerbo (a1) and Preben Bo Mortensen (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

Family history of psychiatric disorders and age at first contact in schizophrenia: An epidemiological study

  • Majella Byrne (a1), Esben Agerbo (a1) and Preben Bo Mortensen (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *