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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    2015. Cultural Adaptation of CBT for Serious Mental Illness. p. 14.

    Rathod, Shanaya Phiri, Peter Harris, Scott Underwood, Charlotte Thagadur, Mahesh Padmanabi, Uma and Kingdon, David 2013. Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis can be adapted for minority ethnic groups: A randomised controlled trial. Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 143, Issue. 2-3, p. 319.

    Naeem, Farooq Ayub, Muhammad Kingdon, David and Gobbi, Mary 2012. Views of Depressed Patients in Pakistan Concerning Their Illness, Its Causes, and Treatments. Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 22, Issue. 8, p. 1083.

    Rathod, Shanaya Kingdon, David Phiri, Peter and Gobbi, Mary 2010. Developing Culturally Sensitive Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis for Ethnic Minority Patients by Exploration and Incorporation of Service Users' and Health Professionals' Views and Opinions. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 38, Issue. 05, p. 511.

    Rathod, Shanaya Phiri, Peter and Kingdon, David 2010. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 33, Issue. 3, p. 527.

    Rathod, Shanaya and Kingdon, David 2009. Cognitive behaviour therapy across cultures. Psychiatry, Vol. 8, Issue. 9, p. 370.

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In his criticism of the expansion of psychological therapies, Summerfield 1 contends quite reasonably that ‘talking therapies are grounded in an ineffably Western version of a person’. Socio-demographic factors and cultural background influence the perception of symptoms of mental illness and, hence, engagement with services. As Veale 1 rightly points out, CBT does not ignore the social context of the illness but cultural adaptations and understanding of ethnic, cultural and religious interpretations is an area which currently remains underdeveloped.

We are seeking to address this by developing a qualitative methodology which can be used to produce culturally sensitive CBT for diverse ethnic groups. Two projects are underway: in Pakistan, we are assessing whether CBT for depression is compatible with local beliefs and values, and if so, what adaptation to manuals, training and practice is needed. In the UK, a similar project is tackling CBT for psychosis in Black and minority ethnic populations. Both projects involve interviewing lay groups, patients who have and have not had CBT, mental health professionals from the relevant ethnic groups and CBT therapists. Analysis of transcripts from the Pakistan project does endorse the use of CBT but has already indicated, for example, that presentation of depression is frequently somatic and CBT has to directly address this. Literal translation into Urdu of terms used in CBT may not be possible or can be misleading. Adaptation for different levels of literacy is needed. Family members tend to accompany patients and are essential to successful work. Often there is better engagement with local faith healers and religious leaders. Similarly, African and African–Caribbean people have more usually consulted their traditional healers for help. Often within similar African cultures, the concept of mental illness differs considerably. 2 Piloting of an adapted manual has begun and further evaluation of culturally sensitive CBT in Pakistan and the UK is planned. These measures are essential to the success of the CBT programme in a multicultural society.

1 Summerfield, D, Veale, D. Proposals for massive expansion of psychological therapies would be counterproductive across society. Br J Psychiatry 2008; 192: 326–30.
2 Edgerton, R. Conceptions of psychosis in four East African societies. Am Anthropol 1966; 68: 408–25.