Bonekamp, D, Nagae, LM, Degaonkar, M, Matson, M, Abdalla, WM, Barker, PB, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in children and adolescents: reproducibility, hemispheric, and age-related differences. Neuroimage
2007; 34: 733–42.
Sullivan, EV, Pfefferbaum, A. Diffusion tensor imaging in normal aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. Eur J Radiol
2003; 453: 244–55.
Beaulieu, C. The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system – a technical review. NMR Biomed
2002; 15: 435–55.
Toga, AW, Thompson, PM, Sowell, ER. Mapping brain maturation. Trends Neurosci
2006; 29: 148–59.
Charlton, RA, Barrick, TR, McIntyre, DJ, Shen, Y, O'Sullivan, M, Howe, FA, et al. White matter damage on diffusion tensor imaging correlates with age-related cognitive decline. Neurology
2006; 66: 217–22.
Thompson, PM, Vidal, C, Giedd, JN, Gochman, P, Blumenthal, J, Nicolson, R, et al. Mapping adolescent brain change reveals dynamic wave of accelerated gray matter loss in very early-onset schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
2001; 98: 11650–5.
Burke, L, Androutsos, C, Jogia, J, Byrne, P, Frangou, S. The Maudsley Early Onset Schizophrenia Study: the effect of age of onset and illness duration on fronto-parietal gray matter. Eur Psychiatry
2008; 23: 233–6.
Shenton, ME, Dickey, CC, Frumin, M, McCarley, RW. A review of MRI findings in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res
2001; 49: 1–52.
Greenstein, D, Lerch, J, Shaw, P, Clasen, L, Giedd, J, Gochman, P, et al. Childhood onset schizophrenia: cortical brain abnormalities as young adults. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2006; 47: 1003–12.
Kyriakopoulos, M, Vyas, NS, Barker, GJ, Chitnis, XA, Frangou, S. A diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in early-onset schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry
2008; 63: 519–23.
Kumra, S, Ashtari, M, McMeniman, M, Vogel, J, Augustin, R, Becker, DE, et al. Reduced frontal white matter integrity in early-onset schizophrenia: a preliminary study. Biol Psychiatry
2004; 55: 1138–45.
Kumra, S, Ashtari, M, Cervellione, KL, Henderson, I, Kester, H, Roofeh, D, et al. White matter abnormalities in early-onset schizophrenia: a voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2005; 44: 934–41.
White, T, Kendi, AT, Lehericy, S, Kendi, M, Karatekin, C, Guimaraes, A, et al. Disruption of hippocampal connectivity in children and adolescents with schizophrenia – a voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study. Schizophr Res
2007; 90: 302–7.
Ashtari, M, Cottone, J, Ardekani, BA, Cervellione, K, Szeszko, PR, Wu, J, et al. Disruption of white matter integrity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in adolescents with schizophrenia as revealed by fiber tractography. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2007; 64: 1270–80.
Douaud, G, Smith, S, Jenkinson, M, Behrens, T, Johansen-Berg, H, Vickers, J, et al. Anatomically related grey and white matter abnormalities in adolescent-onset schizophrenia. Brain
2007; 130: 2375–86.
Ardekani, BA, Nierenberg, J, Hoptman, MJ, Javitt, DC, Lim, KO. MRI study of white matter diffusion anisotropy in schizophrenia. Neuroreport
2003; 14: 2025–9.
Burns, J, Job, D, Bastin, ME, Whalley, H, Macgillivray, T, Johnstone, EC, et al. Structural disconnectivity in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study. Br J Psychiatry
2003; 182: 439–43.
Hubl, D, Koenig, T, Strik, W, Federspiel, A, Kreis, R, Boesch, C, et al. Pathways that make voices: white matter changes in auditory hallucinations. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2004; 61: 658–68.
Buchsbaum, MS, Friedman, J, Buchsbaum, BR, Chu, KW, Hazlett, EA, Newmark, R, et al. Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry
2006; 60: 1181–7.
Hao, Y, Liu, Z, Jiang, T, Gong, G, Liu, H, Tan, L, et al. White matter integrity of the whole brain is disrupted in first-episode schizophrenia. Neuroreport
2006; 17: 23–6.
Manoach, DS, Ketwaroo, GA, Polli, FE, Thakkar, KN, Barton, JJ, Goff, DC, et al. Reduced microstructural integrity of the white matter underlying anterior cingulate cortex is associated with increased saccadic latency in schizophrenia. Neuroimage
2007; 37: 599–610.
Shergill, SS, Kanaan, RA, Chitnis, XA, O'Daly, O, Jones, DK, Frangou, S, et al. A diffusion tensor imaging study of fasciculi in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry
2007; 164: 467–73.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA, 1994.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. Standard Occupational Classification. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1991.
Annett, M. A classification of hand preference by association analysis. Br J Psychol
1970; 61: 303–21.
Nelson, HE, Willison, JR. National Adult Reading Test (Part II): Test Manual (2nd edn). nferNelson, 1991.
First, M, Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M, Williams, J. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders, Patient Edition (SCID–I/P) (Version 2.0). New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1995.
Bezchlibnyk-Butler, KZ, Jeffries, JJ, (eds). Clinical Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs, (10th edn): 84–8. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 2000.
Kay, SR, Fiszbein, A, Opler, LA. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull
1987; 13: 261–76.
Basser, PJ, Mattiello, J, LeBihan, D. Estimation of the effective self-diffusion tensor from the NMR spin echo. J Magn Reson B
1994; 103: 247–54.
Good, CD, Johnsrude, IS, Ashburner, J, Henson, RN, Friston, KJ, Frackowiak, RS. A voxel-based morphometric study of ageing in 465 normal adult human brains. Neuroimage
2001; 14: 21–36.
Bullmore, ET, Suckling, J, Overmeyer, S, Rabe-Hesketh, S, Taylor, E, Brammer, MJ. Global, voxel, and cluster tests, by theory and permutation, for a difference between two groups of structural MR images of the brain. IEEE Trans Med Imaging
1999; 18: 32–42.
Talairach, J, Tournoux, P. Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain. Thieme, 1988.
Mori, S, Wanaka, S, Nagae-Poetscher, LM, van Zijl, PCM. MRI Atlas of Human White Matter. Elsevier Science, 2005.
Kanaan, RA, Kim, JS, Kaufmann, WE, Pearlson, GD, Barker, GJ, McGuire, PK. Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry
2005; 58: 921–9.
Kyriakopoulos, M, Bargiotas, T, Barker, GJ, Frangou, S. Diffusion tensor imaging in schizophrenia. Eur Psychiatry
2008; 23: 255–73.
Lebel, C, Walker, L, Leemans, A, Phillips, L, Beaulieu, C. Microstructural maturation of the human brain from childhood to adulthood. Neuroimage
2008; 40: 1044–55.
Jacobs, B, Driscoll, L, Schall, M. Life-span dendritic and spine changes in areas 10 and 18 of human cortex: a quantitative Golgi study. J Comp Neurol
1997; 386: 661–8.
Davis, KL, Stewart, DG, Friedman, JI, Buchsbaum, M, Harvey, PD, Hof, PR, et al. White matter changes in schizophrenia: evidence for myelin-related dysfunction. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2003; 60: 443–56.
Rapoport, J, Addington, J, Frangou, S. The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2005. Mol Psychiatry
2005; 10: 434–49.
Addington, AM, Gornick, M, Duckworth, J, Sporn, A, Gogtay, N, Bobb, A, et al. GAD1 (2q31.1), which encodes glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), is associated with childhood-onset schizophrenia and cortical gray matter volume loss. Mol Psychiatry
2005; 10: 581–8.
Cheung, V, Cheung, C, McAlonan, GM, Deng, Y, Wong, JG, Yip, L, et al. A diffusion tensor imaging study of structural dysconnectivity in never-medicated, first-episode schizophrenia. Psychol Med
2008; 38: 877–85.
Wechsler, D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, (3rd edn). Psychological Corporation, 1997.