Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

‘Bipolarity’ in bipolar disorder: Distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in a treated population

  • Mark S. Bauer (a1), Gregory E. Simon (a2), Evette Ludman (a3) and Jurgen Unützer (a3)

Summary

Cross-sectional analysis of 441 individuals with bipolar disorder treated at a US health maintenance organisation investigated the distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in that illness. Clinically significant depressive symptoms occurred in 94.1% of those with (hypo)mania, while70.1% inadepressive episode had clinically significant manic symptoms. DSM-unrecognised depression-plus-hypomania was over twice as prevalent as DSM-recognised mixed episodes. Depressive symptoms were unimodally distributed in (hypo)mania. Depressive and manic symptoms were positively, not inversely correlated, and their co-occurrence was associated with worse quality of life. Implications for the DSM and ICD nosological systems are discussed.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      ‘Bipolarity’ in bipolar disorder: Distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in a treated population
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      ‘Bipolarity’ in bipolar disorder: Distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in a treated population
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      ‘Bipolarity’ in bipolar disorder: Distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in a treated population
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Dr Mark S. Bauer, VAMC-116R, 830 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908-4799, USA. Tel: +1 401 273 7100, ext. 38631; fax: +1401 457 3311; e-mail: mark_bauer@brown.edu

Footnotes

Hide All

Declaration of interest

None. Funding detailed in Acknowledgements.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Akiskal, H. S., Bourgeois, M. L., Angst, J., et al (2000) Re-evaluating the prevalence of and diagnostic composition within the broad clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 59 (suppl. 1), S5S30.
American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn, text revision) (DSM–IV–TR). Washington, DC: APA.
Bauer, M. S. (2003) Bipolar (manic–depressive) disorder. In Psychiatry (2nd edn) (eds Tasman, A., Kay, J. & Lieberman, J.), pp. 12371270. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Bauer, M. S., Gyulai, L., Yeh, H-S., et al (1994) Testing definitions of dysphoric mania and hypomania: prevalence, clinical characteristics, and inter-episode stability. Journal of Affective Disorders, 32, 201211.
Bauer, M. S., Kirk, G., Gavin, C., et al (2001) Correlates of functional and economic outcome in bipolar disorder: a prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 65, 231241.
First, M. B., Pincus, H. A., Levin, J. B., et al (2004) Clinical utility as a criterion for revising psychiatric diagnoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 946954.
Judd, L. L., Akiskal, H. S., Schettler, P. J., et al (2002) The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 530537.
Kendell, R. (1982) The choice of diagnostic criteria for biological research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 13341339.
Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Unutzer, J., et al (2005) Randomized trial of a population-based care program for people with bipolar disorder. Psychological Medicine, 35, 1324.
Stewart, A., Hays, R. & Ware, J. (1988) The MOS short-form general health survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Medical Care, 26, 724735.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

‘Bipolarity’ in bipolar disorder: Distribution of manic and depressive symptoms in a treated population

  • Mark S. Bauer (a1), Gregory E. Simon (a2), Evette Ludman (a3) and Jurgen Unützer (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.