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Stereotype Development in Andalusian Children

  • Almudena Giménez de la Peña (a1), Jesús M. Canto Ortiz (a1), Pablo Fernández Berrocal (a1) and Martyn Barrett (a2)


Social psychologists have shown a profound interest in intergroup relationships, but there are very few papers focusing on the developmental aspects that explain the psychological mechanisms involved in the construction of group and cultural identity. Our research aims to explore how the self-categorization of Andalusian children evolves. We tried to assess the degree to which they self-identify as Andalusian, Spanish, and European, and how this identification changes with age. We were also interested in the affective evaluation of different groups (French, Italian, English, German, Spanish, Catalonian, and Andalusian) made by Andalusian children. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between self-categorization and the evaluation of these groups. Results show that the development of national (autonomous community) identity in these children is influenced by their cognitive development, as well as by the relationships among the regional communities of Spain and the relationships between Spain and other countries. The peculiarity of Andalusians as a group is that they assume both identities: Spanish and Andalusian, from a very early age. In-group favoritism is an extended phenomenon at all ages, and Andalusian children have a negative stereotype of the other Spanish groups and other European communities.

Los psicólogos sociales manifiestan un profundo interés por las relaciones intergrupales. Sin embargo, hay pocas publicaciones relacionadas con los aspectos evolutivos que explican los mecanismos psicológicos implicados en la construcción de la identidad grupal y cultural. Nuestra investigación ha pretendido estudiar cómo evoluciona la autocategorización de los niños andaluces. También hemos evaluado el grado en que la identificación de los niños como andaluces, españoles y europeos cambia con la edad. Al mismo tiempo, nos interesaba conocer cómo los niños andaluces evalúan a diferentes grupos (franceses, italianos, ingleses, alemanes, españoles, catalanes y andaluces). Igualmente, hemos analizado la relación entre la autocategorización y la evaluación de esos grupos. Los resultados muestran que el desarrollo y adquisición de la identidad nacional está influida tanto por los aspectos cognoscitivos (indicados por la edad) como por las relaciones entre las comunidades de España y las relaciones entre España y otros países. La peculiaridad de los andaluces como grupo es que asumen la identidad como español y como andaluz desde una edad muy temprana. El favoritismo endogrupal es un fenómeno extendido a todas las edades, de ahí que los niños andaluces tengan un estereotipo más negativo de los exogrupos.


Corresponding author

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to: Almudena Giménez de la Peña, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain. E-mail:


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