Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Psychophysiological Studies of Unattended Information Processing

  • Fernando Valle-Inclán (a1), Carmen de Labra (a1) and Milagros Redondo (a1)

Abstract

The article describes the general methods and some of the results obtained in the Psychophysiology Laboratory of the University of La Coruña. The paper covers our research on the Simon effect and accessory effect, although it is not a review of the literature. The research strategy we followed is built around the use of lateralized motor potentials recorded from scalp. These measures allow observing the way responses are selected and when they are selected, providing an invaluable tool to study response interference and to split reaction time into two halves. The research on the Simon effect concludes that interference during response selection is critical in the Simon effect but it is dubious whether this process should be considered as automatic and stimulus-driven, as is widely accepted. The experiments with the accessory effect indicate that facilitation is produced before response selection is over, which ends a long controversy about the locus of the accessory effect.

El artículo describe el método y algunos de los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio de Psicofisiología de la Universidad de La Coruña. El trabajo abarca nuestra investigación sobre el efecto Simon y sobre el efecto accesorio, aunque no es una revisión del corpus teórico. La estrategia de investigación seguida en estos experimentos se basa en la utilización de potenciales motores lateralizados que se registran sobre cuero cabelludo. Estas medidas permiten observar cómo y cuándo se seleccionan las respuestas, proporcionando una valiosísima herramienta para estudiar la interferencia de respuesta y para partir el tiempo de reacción en dos mitades. Nuestra investigación sobre el efecto Simon concluye que la interferencia durante la selección de respuesta es crucial en el efecto Simon, pero no está tan claro si este proceso debe considerarse automático y guiado por el estímulo, como defienden la mayoría de las teorías actuales. Los experimentos con el efecto accesorio indican que la facilitación se produce antes de que termine la selección de respuesta, lo que acaba con una larga controversia acerca del locus del efecto accesorio.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to any of the authors concerning this article should be addressed to the Departamento de Psicología. Campus de Elviña. 15071 La Coruña (Spain). E-mail addresses: fval@udc.es, clabra@mail2.udc.es, mredon@udc.es

References

Hide All
Coles, M.G.H. (1989). Modern mind-brain reading: Psychophysiology, physiology, and cognition. Psychophysiology, 26, 251269.
Coles, M.G.H., & Gratton, G. (1986). Cognitive psychophysiology and the study of states and processes. In Hockey, G.R.J., Gaillard, A.W.K., & Coles, M.G.H. (Eds.), Energetics and human information processing (pp. 409424). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
Craft, J.L., & Simon, J.R. (1970). Processing symbolic information from a visual display: Interference from an irrelevant directional cue. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 415420.
de Jong, R., Liang, C., & Lauber, E. (1994). Conditional and unconditional automaticity: A dual-process model of effects of spatial stimulus-response correspondence. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 731750.
de Jong, R., Wierda, M., Mulder, G., & Mulder, L.J.M. (1988). Use of partial information in response processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 14, 682692.
Eriksen, B.A., & Eriksen, C.W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143149.
Gratton, G., Coles, M.G.H., & Donchin, E. (1983). A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifacts. Electroencephalograhyand Clinical Neurophysiology, 55, 468484.
Gratton, G., Coles, M.G.H., & Donchin, E. (1992). Optimizing the use of information: Strategic control of activation of responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 44804506.
Grice, G.R., Canham, L., & Boroughs, J.M. (1984). Combination rule for redundant information in reaction time tasks with divided attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 36, 451463.
Hackley, S.A., & Valle-Inclán, F. (1998). Automatic alerting does not speed late motoric processes in a reaction time task. Nature, 391, 786788.
Hackley, S.A., & Valle-Inclán, F. (1999). Accessory stimulus effects on response selection: Does arousal speed decision making? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 321329.
Hasbroucq, T., & Guiard, Y. (1991). Stimulus-response compatibility and the Simon effect: Toward a conceptual clarification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17, 246266.
Hedge, A., & Marsh, N.W.A. (1975). The effects of irrelevant spatial correspondences on two-choice response-time. Acta Psychologica, 39, 427439.
Hillyard, S.A., Hink, R.F., Schwent, V.L., & Picton, T.W. (1973). Electrical signals of selective attention in the human brain. Science, 182, 177180.
Hommel, B. (1993a). The relationship between stimulus processing and response selection in the Simon task: Evidence for a temporal overlap. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 55, 280290.
Hommel, B. (1993b). Inverting the Simon effect by intention: Determinants of direction and extent of effects of irrelevant spatial information. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 55, 270279.
Hommel, B. (1994). Spontaneous decay of response-code activation. Psychological Research/Psychologische Forschung, 56, 261268.
Hommel, B. (1995). Stimulus-response compatibility and the Simon effect: Toward an empirical clarification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 764775.
Kornblum, S., Hasbroucq, T., & Osman, A. (1990). Dimensional overlap: Cognitive basis for stimulus-response compatibility: A model and taxonomy. Psychological Review, 97, 253270.
Kornblum, S., Stevens, G.T., Requin, J., & Whipple, A. (1999). The effects of irrelevant stimuli: 1. The time course of stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response consistency effects with Stroop-like stimuli, Simon-like tasks, and their factorial combinations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 688714.
Lu, C.-H., & Proctor, R.W. (1995). The influence of irrelevant location information on performance: A review of the Simon and spatial Stroop effects. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2, 174207.
McCarthy, G., & Donchin, E. (1981). A metric for thought: A comparison of P300 latency and reaction time. Science, 211, 7780.
Nickerson, R.S. (1973). Intersensory facilitation of reaction time: Energy summation or preparation enhancement? Psychological Review, 80, 489509.
Osman, A., Bashore, T.R., Coles, M.G.H., Donchin, E., & Meyer, D.E. (1992). On the transmission of partial information:Inferences from movement-related brain potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 217232.
Posner, M.I. (1978). Chronometric explorations of the mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Proctor, R.W., & Lu, C.-H. (1999). Processing irrelevant location information: Practice and transfer effects in choice-reaction tasks. Memory & Cognition, 27, 6377.
Sanders, A.F. (1980). Stage analysis of reaction processes. In Stelmach, G.E. & Requin, J. (Eds.), Tutorials in motor behavior (pp. 331354). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Shiu, L.-P., & Kornblum, S. (1999). Stimulus-response compatibility effects in go-no-go tasks: A dimensional overlap account. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 16131623.
Simon, J.R. (1990). The effects of an irrelevant directional cue on human information processing. In Proctor, R.W. & Reeve, T.G. (Eds.), Stimulus-Response compatibility: An integrated perspective (pp. 3188). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
Simon, J.R., & Acosta, E. Jr., (1982). Effect of irrelevant information on the processing of relevant information: Facilitation and/or interference? The influence of experimental design. Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 383388.
Simon, J.R., & Craft, J.L. (1970). Effects of an irrelevant auditory stimulus on visual choice reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 86, 272274.
Simon, J.R., Hinrichs, J.V., & Craft, J.L. (1970).Auditory S-R compatibility: Reaction time as a function of ear-hand correspondence and ear-response-location correspondence. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86, 97102.
Simon, J.R., & Rudell, A.P. (1967). Auditory S-R compatibility: The effect of an irrelevant cue on information processing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51, 300304.
Simon, J.R., & Small, A.M. Jr., (1969). Processing auditory information: Interference from an irrelevant cue. Journal of Applied Psychology, 53, 433435.
Smid, H.G.O.M., Mulder, G., & Mulder, L.J.M. (1987). The continuous flow model revisited: Perceptual and motor aspects. In Johnson, R.E., Rohrbaugh, J.W., & Parasuraman, R. (Eds.), Current trends in event-related potentials research. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology (Suppl. 40) (pp. 270278). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Stein, B.E., London, N., Wilkinson, L.K., & Price, D.D. (1996). Enhancement of perceived visual intensity by auditory stimuli: A psychophysical analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 8, 497506.
Stern, J.A., Walrath, L.C., & Goldstein, R. (1984). The endogenous eyeblink. Psychophysiology, 21, 2233.
Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643662.
Umiltà, C., Rubichi, S., & Nicoletti, R. (1999). Facilitation and interference components in the Simon effect. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 137, 139149.
Valle-Inclán, F. (1996a). The locus of interference in the Simon effect: An ERP study. Biological Psychology, 43, 147162.
Valle-Inclán, F. (1996b). The Simon effect and its reversalstudied with ERPs. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 23, 4153.
Valle-Inclán, F., Hackley, S.A., & de Labra, C. (2000). Expectancies and spatial coding in the Simon effect. Manuscript in preparation.
Valle-Inclán, F., Hackley, S.A., de Labra, C., & Alvarez, A. (1999a). Early visual processing during binocular rivalry studied with visual evoked potentials. NeuroReport, 10, 2125.
Valle-Inclán, F., Hackley, S.A., de Labra, C., & Alvarez, A. (1999b). Rivalry related potential does not originate in striate cortex. Psychophysiology, 36, supp. 1, S117.
Valle-Inclán, F., Hackley, S.A., & McClay, B. (1998). Sequential effects with respect to the Simon effect. Journal of Psychophysiology, 12, 404.
Valle-Inclán, F., & Redondo, M. (1998). On the automaticity of ipsilateral response activation in the Simon effect. Psychophysiology, 35, 366371.
Verleger, R. (1997). On the utility of P3 latency as an index of mental chronometry. Psychophysiology, 34, 131156.

Keywords

Psychophysiological Studies of Unattended Information Processing

  • Fernando Valle-Inclán (a1), Carmen de Labra (a1) and Milagros Redondo (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed