Skip to main content Accessibility help

Design and Evaluation Process of a Personal and Motive-Based Competencies Questionnaire in Spanish-Speaking Contexts

  • Joan Batista-Foguet (a1), Alaide Sipahi-Dantas (a1), Laura Guillén (a2), Rosario Martínez Arias (a3) and Ricard Serlavós (a1)...


Most questionnaires used for managerial purposes have been developed in Anglo-Saxon countries and then adapted for other cultures. However, this process is controversial. This paper fills the gap for more culturally sensitive assessment instruments in the specific field of human resources while also addressing the methodological issues that scientists and practitioners face in the development of questionnaires. First, we present the development process of a Personal and Motive-based competencies questionnaire targeted to Spanish-speaking countries. Second, we address the validation process by guiding the reader through testing the questionnaire construct validity. We performed two studies: a first study with 274 experts and practitioners of competency development and a definitive study with 482 members of the general public. Our results support a model of nineteen competencies grouped into four higher-order factors. To assure valid construct comparisons we have tested the factorial invariance of gender and work experience. Subsequent analysis have found that women self-rate themselves significantly higher than men on only two of the nineteen competencies, empathy (p < .001) and service orientation (p < .05). The effect of work experience was significant in twelve competencies (p < .001), in which less experienced workers self-rate higher than experienced workers. Finally, we derive theoretical and practical implications.


Corresponding author

*Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Joan Batista-Foguet. University Ramon Llull - ESADE, BS. Barcelona (Spain). E-mail:


Hide All
Afthanorhan, W. M. A. B. W., & Ahmad, S. (2013). Modeling the multimediator on motivation among youth in higher education institution towards volunteerism program. Mathematical Theory and Modeling, 3, 6470.
Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice . Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page Publishers.
Bagozzi, R. P. (1984). A prospectus for theory construction in marketing. Journal of Marketing, 48, 1129.
Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence. Psicothema, 18, 124131.
Bartram, D. (2005). The Great Eight Competencies: A criterion-centric approach to validation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 11851203.
Batista-Foguet, J. M., Boyatzis, R., Guillén, L., & Serlavos, R. (2008). Assessing emotional intelligence competencies in two global contexts. In Emmerling, R. (Ed.), Emotional intelligence: Theoretical and cultural perspectives. (pp. 89114), San Francisco, CA: Nova Science Publishers.
Batista-Foguet, J. M., Saris, W., Boyatzis, R., Guillén, L., & Serlavòs, R. (2009). Effect of response scale on assessment of emotional intelligence competencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 575580.
Bisbe, J., Batista-Foguet, J. M., & Chenhall, R. (2007). Defining management accounting constructs: The risks of theoretical misspecification. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 32, 789820.
Cheung, F. M. (2004). Use of Western- and indigenously-developed personality tests in Asia. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53, 173191.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Four ways five factors are basic. Personality and Individual differences, 13, 653665.
Cuesta, M., & Fonseca-Pedrero, E. (2014). Estimating the reliability coefficient of tests in presence of missing values. Psicothema, 26, 516524.
Du Gay, P., Salaman, G., & Rees, B. (1996). The conduct of management and the management of conduct: Contemporary managerial discourse and the constitution of the “Competent” manager. Journal of Management Studies, 33, 263282.
Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M., & Slaski, M. (2003). Measuring emotional intelligence: Construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18, 405420.
Emmerling, R. J., & Boyatzis, R. E. (2012). Emotional and social intelligence competencies: Cross cultural implications. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(1), 418.
Extremera, N., Fernandez-Berrocal, P., & Salovey, P. (2006). Spanish version of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). 2.0: Reliabilities, age and gender differences. Psicothema, 18, 4248.
Fernández-Alonso, R., Suárez-Alvarez, J., & Muñiz, J. (2012). Imputación de datos perdidos en las evaluaciones diagnósticas educativas [Imputation of missing data on educational diagnostic assessments]. Psicothema, 24, 167175.
Gouveia, V., Milfont, T. L., Gouveia, R. S. V., Neto, J. R. N., & Galvão, L. (2012). Brazilian-Portuguese empathy quotient: Evidences of its construct validity and reliability. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 777782.
Guillén, L., & Saris, W. (2013). Competencies, personality traits, and job outcomes of middle managers: A motive-based approach. Human Performance, 26, 127.
Heise, D. R., & Bohrnstedt, G. W. (1970). Validity, invalidity and reliability. In Borgatta, E. F. & Bohrnstedt, G. W (Eds.), Sociological Methodology, (pp.104129). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Hossiep, R., & Parchen, M. (2006). BIP. Bochumer Inventar zur berufsbezogenen Persönlichkeitsbeschreibung [BIP, Bochum Inventory of Personality and Skills]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe. Adaptación española: Arribas, D. & Pereña, J. (2006). BIP, Inventario Bochum de Personalidad y Competencias. [BIP, Bochum Inventory of Personality and Skills]. Madrid, Spain: TEA Ediciones.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 155.
Jarvis, C. B., Mackenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2003). A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 199218.
Libbrecht, N., De Beuckelaer, A., Lievens, F., & Rockstuhl, T. (2014). Measurement invariance of the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale scores: Does the measurement structure hold across far eastern and European countries? Applied Psychology, 63, 223237.
McClelland, D. C., & Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). Leadership motive pattern and long term success in management. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 737743.
McClelland, D., Atkinson, J., Clark, R., & Lowell, E. (1953). The achievement motive. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
McEnrue, M. P., & Groves, K. (2006). Choosing among tests of emotional intelligence: What is the evidence? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17, 942.
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525543.
Mestre, M. V., Samper, P., Frías, M. D., & Tur, A. M. (2009). Are women more empathetic than men? A longitudinal study in adolescence. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 7683.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 1759). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2001). Trait emotional intelligence: Psychometric investigation with reference to established trait taxonomies. European Journal of Personality, 15, 425488.
Saris, W. E., Satorra, A., & van der Veld, W. M. (2009). Testing structural equation models, or detection of misspecifications? Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16, 561582.
Scullen, S. E., Mount, M. K., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Evidence of construct validity of developmental ratings of managerial performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 5066.
Steenkamp, J-B. E. M., de Jong, M. G., & Baumgartner, H. (2010). Socially desirable response tendencies in survey research. Journal of Marketing Research, 47, 199214.
Taylor, S. N., & Hood, J. N. (2011). It may not be what you think: Gender differences in predicting emotional and social competence. Human Relations, 64, 627652.
Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 470.


Design and Evaluation Process of a Personal and Motive-Based Competencies Questionnaire in Spanish-Speaking Contexts

  • Joan Batista-Foguet (a1), Alaide Sipahi-Dantas (a1), Laura Guillén (a2), Rosario Martínez Arias (a3) and Ricard Serlavós (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed