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Archibald Cary Coolidge: A Founder of Russian Studies in the United States

  • Robert F. Byrnes

Extract

Americans have paid relatively little attention to the history of higher education in the United States, and Russian specialists have neglected the history of their own field, even though our foundations strongly affect our qualities as scholarteachers and the circumstances in which we work. One of the most important founding fathers of Russian studies in the United States was Archibald Cary Coolidge, a member of the Department of History at Harvard University from 1893 until his death in 1928, who launched teaching and research concerning Russia and Eastern Europe at Harvard and in many other colleges and universities through those whom he helped train.

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References

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1. George, Santayana, Persons and Places, vol. 2 (New York, 1963), p. 162.

2. Coolidge, Archibald Cary, The United States as a World Power (New York, 1908; St. Clair Shores, Mich., 1971); Coolidge, , Origins of the Triple Alliance: Three Lectures (New York, 1917; 1926); Coolidge, , Ten Years of War and Peace (New York, 1927); Creasy, Sir Edward S., Turkey, revised and ed. Coolidge, Archibald Cary and Claflin, W. Harold (Philadelphia, 1907); Alfred, Pribram, The Secret Treaties of Austria-Hungary, 1879-1914, 2 vols., ed. Coolidge, Archibald Cary (Cambridge, 1920-21; New York, 1967); Coolidge, and Channing, Edward, eds.. The Barrington-Bemard Correspondence and Illustrative Matter, 1760-1770 (Cambridge, Mass., 1912 ). Some of Coolidge's publications are listed in Coolidge, Harold Jefferson and Lord, Robert Howard, Archibald Cary Coolidge: Life and Letters (Boston, 1932), p. 35455.

3. Harvard University, Department of History, List of References in History I (1910).

4. Archibald Cary Coolidge, “Professional Coaches: From Report of the Athletic Committee for 1904-1905,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, March 1906, pp. 329-95; Armstrong, Hamilton Fish, Peace and Counterpeace: From Wilson to Hilter (New York, 1971), p. 1971 ; Emerton, Ephraim and Morison, Samuel Eliot, “History, 1838-1929,” in Morison, Samuel Eliot, ed., The Development of Harvard University since the Inauguration of President Eliot, 1869-1929 (Cambridge, Mass., 1930), pp. 162 and 170; “The New Haven Meeting of the American Historical Association,” American Historical Review, 4, no. 3 (April 1899): 413; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 62-63; William Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library: The Coolidge Years at Harvard (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), pp. 6-9; Roger B. Merriman, “Archibald Cary Coolidge,” Harvard Graduates’ Magazine, June 1928, pp. 551—52.

5. Archibald Cary Coolidge, “The Harvard College Library,” Harvard Graduates' Magazine, September 1915, pp. 23-31; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 42-66, 204; Harvard University, Library, Harvard University Library, 1638-1968 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969), pp. 18-19; Thomas Franklin Currier, “Archibald Cary Coolidge,” Library Journal, 53, no. 3 (February 1928): 131-33; William Coolidge Lane, “The Harvard College Library, 1877-1928,” in Morison, The Development of Harvard University, pp. 618-19; Alfred C. Potter, The Library of Harvard University. Descriptive and Historical Notes (Cambridge, Mass., 1934), pp. 172-78.

6. Harvard University Archives (hereafter cited as HUA), Archibald Cary Coolidge, diary entry, March 21, 1900; Julian L. Coolidge, diary entry, March 29, 1900; Archibald Cary Coolidge, letter to Allen Dulles, July 25, 1921.

7. Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, p. 13.

8. Coolidge, Archibald Cary, “‘The Unknown Strip, ’ from Nekrasov. ‘The Angel, ’ from Lermontov,” Harvard Monthly, 19 (January 1895): 131–35; Coolidge, Archibald Cary, “Translations from the Russian,” Anglo-Russian Literary Society, Proceedings, no. 14 (February-April 1896), pp. 35–38, no. 15 (May-August 1896), p. 97; Coolidge, Archibald Cary, trans., “The Demon,” Slavonic Review, 4 (December 1925): 278–307; Leo, Wiener, ed., Anthology of Russian Literature, vol. 2 (New York, 1903), pp. 165–67 ; College, Harvard, Class of 1887, Secretary's Report No. II. 1890 (Melrose, Mass., 1890), p. 19 , Secretary's Report No. IV. 1897 (Melrose, Mass., 1897), p. 40; Bernard, Pares, “Archibald Cary Coolidge,” Slavonic Review, 11 (April 1932): 607–9; Armstrong, Peace and Counterpeace, pp. 191-92; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 117-38; HUA, Archibald Cary Coolidge, letters to his mother, July 9, July 22, and August 16, 1895; letter to his father, August 16, 1895.

9. Carol F. Baird, “Albert Bushnell Hart: The Rise of the Professional Historian,” in Paul, Buck, ed., Social Sciences at Harvard, 1860-1920 (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), pp. 131–32; Morison, Samuel Eliot, “Edward Channing. A Memoir,” Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 64 (May 1931): 264–69; Merriman, Roger B., Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520-1566 (Cambridge, Mass., 1944), preface; Merriman, , “Coolidge,” pp. 551-52; Andrews, Charles M., “These Forty Years,” American Historical Review, 30, no. 2 (January 1925): 233 ; Council on Foreign Relations Archives, Hamilton Fish Armstrong, letter to General Tasker H. Bliss, January 28, 1928.

10. Golder, Frank A., Russian Expansion on the Pacific, 1641-1850 (Cleveland, 1914), pp. 6–7 ; Dexter, Perkins, Yield of the Years: An Autobiography (Boston, 1969), pp. 29–30, 34-35, 40-41, 11819 ; Wolff, Robert Lee, “Robert Pierpont Blake, 1886-1950,” Dumbarton Oaks Papers, no. 8 (1954), pp. 1–9; Patricia A. Goler, “Robert Howard Lord and the Settlement of Polish Boundaries after World War I” (Ph.D. diss., Boston College, 1957); Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 51 and 67; Emerton and Morison, “History,” p. 170; HUA, Bruce C. Hopper, “Archibald Cary Coolidge. The Olympian Teacher,” Appleton Chapel, Harvard University, June 5, 1965; University of California, Bancroft Library, Coolidge letters to Robert J. Kerner, February 26, April 2, April 4, 1910; March 20, May 16, 1913; March 31, July 23, 1914; Kerner letter to Coolidge, March 21, 1910.

11. Harvard College, Class of 1915, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report (Cambridge, Mass., 1940), pp. 402-4, and Fiftieth Anniversary Report (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), pp. 284- 87; Bohlen, Charles E., Witness to History, 1929-1969 (New York, 1973), pp. 8–13 ; Kennan, George F., Memoirs, 1915-1950 (Boston, 1967), pp. 23–33, 40, 62, 8284 .

12. Billington, Ray Allen, ed., Dear Lady: The Letters of Frederick Jackson Turner to Alice Forbes Perkins Hooper, 1910-1932 (San Marino, Calif., 1970), p. 396 ; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 115—20.

13. Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, p. 108; HUA, Coolidge letter to Lewis Einstein, November 23, 1926; Einstein letters to Coolidge, December 27, 1926; February 1, 1927; Boris Bakhmeteff letter to Coolidge, January 9, 1925; Coolidge letter to Michael Karpovich, January 3, 1927; Coolidge letter to Robert J. Kerner, June 27, 1927; Coolidge letter to Sir Bernard Pares, March 22, 1927; Council on Foreign Relations Archives, Coolidge letter to Hamilton Fish Armstrong, January 28, 1927; Armstrong letter to Coolidge, January 31, 1927.

14. Norbert, Wiener, Am a Mathematician (Garden City, N.Y., 1956), pp. 28–30, 45; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 11-12; HUA, Coolidge letter to President Charles William Eliot, November 6, 1903; Harvard Corporation agreement, October 9, 1903; University of California, Bancroft Library, Coolidge letter to Robert J. Kerner, August 23, 1924.

15. HUA, Coolidge letters to Samuel H. Cross, April 30 and May 3, 1927; Cross letter to Coolidge, June 3, 1927; Cross, Samuel H., Competitive Factors in Selling to Belgium and the Netherlands (Washington, D.C., 1925); Cross, Samuel H., “Pouchkine en Angleterre,” Revue de litterature comparee, 17 (January-March 1937): 176.

16. Oleg Maslenikov, “Biographical Sketch and Bibliography of G. R. Noyes,” in Kaun, Alexander and Simmons, Ernest J., eds., Slavic Studies (Ithaca, N.Y., 1943), p. 229 ; John, Caughey, Hubert Howe Bancroft: Historian of the West (Berkeley, 1946), pp. 357–65 ; Albert, Parry, America Learns Russian (Syracuse, 1967), pp. 53–55 ; Ernest J. Simmons, “A Wayward Scholar,” unpublished manuscript, 1970, pp. 4-6.

17. Paula, Cronin, “East Asian Studies at Harvard. A Scholarly Bridge between two Worlds,” Harvard Today, Spring 1976, pp. 8–9; Siebert, Wilbur H., “Collections of Materials in English and European History and Subsidiary Fields in the Libraries of the United States,” Annual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 1904 (Washington, D.C., 1905), p. 662 ; Institute, Harvard-Yenching, A Guide to the Chinese-Japanese Library of Harvard University (Cambridge, Mass., 1932), pp. 5–8; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 161-62; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, p. 48; Council on Foreign Relations Archives, Coolidge letter to Hamilton Fish Armstrong, September 11, 1925; HUA, Coolidge letter to Stanley Hornbeck, June 23, 1926.

18. HUA, Coolidge letters to Ellis Morgan, June 7, 1913, April 15, 1914; Coolidge letter to Charles Crane, February 3, 1921; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, p. 161.

19. Billington, Ray Allen, Frederick Jackson Turner (New York, 1973), pp. 298–300, 310; Billington, Dear Lady, pp. 15-26, 53-69, 103, 115-62, 210, 304-5, 359, 396-98, 423-24; Schlesinger, Arthur M., In Retrospect. The History of a Historian (New York, 1963), pp. 74–75 ; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 115-20; HUA, Ellery Sedgwick letter to Coolidge, November 25, 1924; Coolidge letter to Sedgwick, November 26, 1924.

20. Das politische Tagebuch Josef Redlichs, vol. 1: 1908-1914, vol. 2: 1915-1919 (Graz and Cologne, 1953-54), l: xvii; Council on Foreign Relations Archives, Coolidge letters to Hamilton Fish Armstrong, April 12, April 21, June 22, 1923; August 15, 1924; HUA, Coolidge letters to President A. Lawrence Lowell, June 7, 1922; to Charles K. Webster, May 8, 1926; to Alfred Pribram, May 14, June 22, 1927; to William L. Langer, March 29, 1927; Pribram letter to Coolidge, May 6, 1927.

21. Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 11-14, 42-43; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, p. 87.

22. Otto Harrassowitz Buchhandlung und Antiquariat in Leipzig, , Antiquarischer Catalog 202: Slavica, Sprachwissenschajt, Literatur, Geschichtc und Ethnographie des slavischen Volker (Leipzig, 1895); Riant, Count Paul, Catalogue de la bibliotheque de feu M. le comte Riant redige par L. de Germon et L. Polain, 3 vols, in 2 (Paris, 1896-99), 2 : page opposite title page; Dmitry, Cizevsky, “The Slovak Collection of the Harvard College Library,” Harvard Library Bulletin, 7, no. 3 (Autumn 1953): 299–300, 311; Charles R., Gredler, “The Slavic Collection at Harvard,” Harvard Library Bulletin, 17, no. 4 (October 1969): 431 ; Stanford Shaw, “The Harvard College Library Collection of Books on Ottoman History and Literature,” typescript, Cambridge, Mass., 1959, preface; George P., Winship, “Archibald Cary Coolidge,” Harvard Library Notes, no. 20 (April 1928), pp. 158–60; Bentinck-Smith, Building a Great Library, pp. 11-15, 42-43; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, p. 87.

23. “The Russian Books,” Harvard Library Notes, no. 9 (December 1922), pp. 203-7; Gelfand, Laurence E., The Inquiry: American Preparations for Peace (New York, 1963), pp. 55–56 ; Herbert, Hoover, An American Epic, 4 vols. (Chicago, 1959-64), 3: 454–55; Paul, Miliukov, Memoirs, 1905-1917, ed. Mendel, Arthur P. (Ann Arbor, 1967), p. 1967 ; Beebe, Lucius M., Boston and the Boston Legend (New York, 1935), p. 1935 ; HUA, Coolidge letter to Golder, February 24, 1923.

24. Library, Harvard College, The Kilgour Collection of Russian Literature, 1750-1920 (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), preface; Emerton and Morison, “History,” p. 170. Coolidge and Bliss were frequent correspondents and Coolidge often visited the Blisses in Washington and in embassies abroad.

25. Coolidge, Archibald Cary, “A Plea for the Study of the History of Northern Europe,” American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1895 (Washington, D.C., 1896), pp. 443–51; reprinted in American Historical Review, 2, no. 1 (October 1896): 34-39.

26. Coolidge, Archibald Cary, “Russia in Asia: A Record and a Study, 1588-1899, by Alexis Krausse,American Historical Review, 5, no. 2 (December 1899): 34547 ; American Historical Review, 2, no. 2 (January 1897): 351-53; American Historical Review, 21, no. 1 (October 1915): 194; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, p. 33.

27. HUA, Coolidge letters to Sir Bernard Pares, May 20, June 9, 1924; Pares letters to Coolidge, July 14, 1923; March 2, May 11, 1924; University of California, Bancroft Library, Coolidge letters to Kerner, June 12, June 24, September 12, 1924; Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, J. Franklin Jameson Papers, Pares letter to Jameson, June 24, August 4, 1924; “The Meeting of the American Historical Association at Richmond,” American Historical Review, 30, no. 3 (April 1925): 451, 458-59; Robert J. Kerner, “Slavonic Studies in America,” Slavonic Review, 3 (December 1924): 242 and 258; “The Slavonic Conference at Richmond,” Slavonic Review, 3 (March 1925): 684-93.

28. Arthur Howland Buffinton, “The Institute of Politics,” in Garfield, Harry A., Lost Visions (Boston, 1944), pp. 273–75 ; McLaren, Walter W., “The Institute of Politics,” in Botsford, E. Herbert, ed., Fifty Years at Williams, 4 vols. (Pittsfield, Mass., 1928-40), 4: 149–63; HUA, Coolidge letters to McLaren, May 4, 1922; May 19, 1923; McLaren letters to Coolidge, January 25, January 29, 1924.

29. Foreign Affairs, 1, no. 1 (September 1922): 1; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 306-11.

30. Council on Foreign Relations Archives, Coolidge letters to Armstrong, June 4, July 11, September 9, September 26, October 2, December 11, December 13, 1922; January 3, April 7, 1923; February 1, 1926; Armstrong to Coolidge, February 7, 1926; Coolidge to Karl Radek, March 23, 1927; Archibald Cary Coolidge, “Russia after Genoa and The Hague,” Foreign Affairs, 1, no. 1 (September 1922): 133-55; Armstrong, Peace and Counierpeace, p. 192.

31. Gelfand, The Inquiry, pp. 54-56, 321, 340; Shotwell, James T., The Autobiography of James T. Shotwell (Indianapolis, 1961), p. 78 ; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 192- 93; HUA, Coolidge papers, Inquiry Folder, especially Coolidge, “The Inquiry: Report of A. C. Coolidge for January 15, 1918.”

32. HUA, Coolidge, “Reports from A. C. Coolidge to the American Commission to Negotiate Peace”; Coolidge letters to his mother, May 18, July 31, August 14, September 4, 1918; Archibald Cary Coolidge, “Report to the Secretary of State: Archangel,” September 28, 1918; Archibald Cary Coolidge, “Archangel and Murmansk: Report for the War Trade Board,” n.d.; Hoover Institution, American Relief Administration Archives, John A. Lehrs, “Report of the Liaison Division,” n.d.; Herbert Hoover letter to Coolidge, August 9, 1921; Gelfand, The Inquiry, p. 108; Coolidge and Lord, A. C. Coolidge, pp. 170-91, 217-33, 270.

Archibald Cary Coolidge: A Founder of Russian Studies in the United States

  • Robert F. Byrnes

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