Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-ttgcf Total loading time: 0.423 Render date: 2021-04-12T17:00:06.948Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

European Statistics, Russian Numbers, and Social Dynamics, 1861–1914

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 May 2017

Extract

Recent analyses of the economic impact of the abolition of serfdom mark a major return to quantitative approaches in the economic and social history of Russia. Tracy Dennison, Steven Nafziger, and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, among others, make wide use of data produced by the zemstvo (provincial elected assembly), the Central Statistics Committee (TsSK), the Ministry of Agriculture, and local governors. These figures are particularly crucial with regard to the debate over the impact of the abolition of serfdom and the economic dynamics of tsarist Russia between 1861 and 1914. Indeed, the authors are too quick to consider the data reliable and only concerned about which statistical method should be used. Markevich and Zhuravskaya claim outright: “Historians agree that the quality of the late imperial statistics and governor reports is rather high.” Nafziger makes a similar statement regarding zemstvo statistics, which he declares are fully reliable sources. Dennison and Nafziger add: “Zemstvo publications offer a unique window into rural economic conditions in the post-1861 period, but western scholars have only begun to explore them. We consider these household surveys, other zemstvo publications, research by central government and provincial statistical authorities (including the 1897 census), and various secondary sources to develop some “stylized facts” about rural living standards in Iaroslavl' and Vladimir provinces in the post-1861 period.”

Type
Critical Forum on Statistics
Copyright
Copyright © Association for Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Andrei Markevich and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya, “Economic Effects of the Abolition of Serfdom: Evidence from the Russian Empire” (unpublished paper, 2015).

2. Steven Nafziger, “Land Commune and Factor Market Imperfections: Micro Evidence from Late 19th Century Russia” (unpublished paper, 2005); Nafziger, Steven, “Peasant Communes and Factor Markets in Late Nineteenth-Century Russia,” Explorations in Economic History 47, no. 4 (October 2010): 381402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; “Serfdom, Emancipation, and Land Inequalities. New Evidence” (unpublished paper, 2013).

3. Tracy Dennison and Steven Nafziger, “Micro Perspectives on 19th Century Russian Living Standards” (unpublished paper, 2007) available at http://web.williams.edu/Economics/wp/nafzigerMicroLivingStandards_WilliamsWorkingPaper_Nov2007.pdf (last accessed January 19, 2017).

4. See: Thomas Piketty, Le capital au XXIe siècle (Paris, 2013), introduction and conclusion.

5. Some examples in a huge bibliography: Anfimov, Andrei M., Krest'ianskoe khoziaistvo Evropeiskoi Rossii, 1881–1904 (Moscow, 1980)Google Scholar; Bokarev, Iurii P., Biudzhetnye obsledovaniia krest'ianskhikh khoziaistv 20-kh godov kak istoricheskii istochnik (Moscow, 1981)Google Scholar; Danilov, Viktor P., Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: Naselenie, zemlepol'zovanie, khoziaistvo, (Moscow, 1977)Google Scholar; Danilov, Viktor P., Sovetskaia dokolkhoznaia derevnia: Sotsial'naia struktura, sotsial'nye otnosheniia (Moscow, 1979)Google Scholar; Ivan D. Koval'chenko, Russkoe krepostnoe krest'ianstvo v pervoi polovine XIX v. (Moscow, 1967). Emilia I. Indova, “Urozhai v tsentral'noi Rossii za 150 let (vtoraia polovina XVII-XVIII v.),” Ezhegodnik po agrarnoi istorii Vostochnoi Evropy za 1965 (Moscow, 1970): 141–55; Liudmila S. Prokof'eva, Krest'ianskaia obshchina v Rossii vo vtoroi polovine XVIII-pervoi polovine XIX v (Leningrad, 1981).

6. Kotsonis, Yanni, States of Obligation: Taxes and Citizenship in the Russian Empire and Early Soviet Republic (Toronto, 2014)Google Scholar; Kotsonis, Making Peasants Backward: Agricultural Cooperatives and the Agrarian Question in Russia, 1861–1914 (London, 1999); Khristoforov, Igor, Sud'ba reformy: Russkoe krest'ianstvo v pravitel’stvennoi politike do i posle otmeny krepostnogo prava (1830–1890 gg.) (Moscow, 2011)Google Scholar.

7. Bokarev, Biudzhetnye obsledovanie; Vainshtein, Al'bert L., Oblozheniia i platezhi krest'ianstva v dovoennoe i revoliutsionnoe vremia (Moscow, 1924)Google Scholar; Ptukha, Mikhail V., Ocherki po istorii statistiki v SSSR, 2 vols. (Moscow, 1955, 1959)Google Scholar; Riabushkin, Timon V., Simchera, V.M., Mashikhin, E.A., Razvitie statisticheskoi nauki v SSSR. Voprosy metodologii (Moscow, 1985)Google Scholar; Kingston-Mann, Esther, In Search of the True West: Culture, Economics, and Problems of Russian Development (Princeton, 1999)Google Scholar; Blum, Alain and Mespoulet, Martine, L’anarchie bureaucratique: Pouvoir et statistique sous Staline (Paris, 2003)Google Scholar; Darrow, David, “Statistics and ‘Sufficiency’: Towards an Intellectual History of Russia’s Rural Crisis,” Continuity and Change, 17, no. 1 (May 2002): 6396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Hoch, Steven, “Famine, Disease and Mortality Patterns in the Parish of Boshervka, Russia, 1830−1912,” Population Studies, 52, no. 3 (1998): 357–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Hoch, Steven, “On Good Numbers and Bad: Malthus, Population Trends and Peasant Standard of Living in Late Imperial Russia,” Slavic Review, 53, no. 1 (Spring 1994): 4175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stanziani, Alessandro, L’économie en revolution:  Le cas russe, 1870–1930 (Paris, 1998)Google Scholar; Stanziani, Alessandro, “Statisticiens, zemstva et État dans la Russie des années 1880,” Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 32, no. 4 (October–December 1991): 445–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stanziani, AlessandroLes statistiques des récoltes en Russie, 1905–1928,” Histoire et mesure 7, no. 1/2 (1992): 7398 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Stanziani, Alessandro, “Les enquêtes orales en Russie,1861–1914,” Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales 55, no. 1 (2000): 219–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar ; Johnson, Robert E., “Liberal Professionals and Professional Liberals: The Zemstvo Statisticians and their Work”, in Emmons, Terence and Vucinich, Wayne S., eds, The Zemstvo in Russia: An Experiment in Local Self-Government (Cambridge, 1982), 343–63Google Scholar.

8. Poovey, Mary, A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society (Chicago, 1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9. Quetelet, Adolphe, Du système social et des lois qui le régissent (Paris, 1848)Google Scholar.

10. Porter, Theodore, The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900 (Princeton, 1986)Google Scholar; Desrosières, Alain, La politique des grands nombres: Histoire de la raison statistique (Paris, 1993)Google Scholar.

11. Knapp, Georg Friederich, Theorie des Bevölkerungs-Wechsel: Abhandlungen zur angewanden Mathematik (Brunswick, 1874)Google Scholar.

12. Stigler, Stephen, The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900 (Cambridge, Mass., 1986)Google Scholar.

13. Aleksandr I. Chuprov, Kurs politicheskoi ekonomii (Moscow, 1885, reprint, Berlin, 1924), 1, 2, 20; Andrei A. Isaev, Nachala politicheskoi ekonomii, 3rd ed. (Saint Petersburg, 1898 [1894]), 23; Aleksandr I. Skvortsov, Osnovaniia politicheskoi ekonomii (Saint Petersburg, 1898), 26; Bulgakov, Sergei N., Kapitalizm i zemledelie, 2 vols. (Saint Petersburg 1900), 1:319Google Scholar; Karyshev, Nikolai, “Predmet i zadachi politicheskoi ekonomii,” in Kareev, Nikolai.I., ed., Vvedenie v izuchenie sotsial’nykh nauk. Sbornik statei (Saint Petersburg, 1903), 78Google Scholar; Bogdanov, Aleksandr, Nachal'nyi kurs politicheskoi ekonomii (Moscow, 1904 [1897]), 4Google Scholar; Tugan-Baranovskii, Mikhail I., Osnovy politicheskoi ekonomii, 2 vols. (Saint Petersburg, 1905–1911), 1:1Google Scholar.

14. Isaev, Nachala, 26–29; Chuprov, Kurs politicheskoi ekonomii, 3, 17, 20, 37, 40, 45.

15. Ianson, Iulii, Teoriia statistiki, 3rd ed. (Saint Petersburg, 1886)Google Scholar.

16. Stanziani, Alessandro, “Statistics”, in Merriman, John and Winter, Jay, eds., Europe 1789–1814: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire (Detroit, 2006)Google Scholar.

17. Kosinskii, Vasilii A., K agrarnomu voprosu (Odessa, 1906), 46Google Scholar.

18. Stanziani, L’économie en révolution; Martine Mespoulet, Statistiques et révolution en Russie: Un compromis impossible, 1880–1930 (Rennes, 2001); Vucinich, Wayne, ed., The Zemstvo in Russia: An Experiment in Local Self-Governement (Cambridge, 1982)Google Scholar.

19. Brian, Eric, La mesure de l’Etat: Administrateurs et géomètres au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1994)Google Scholar; Porter, Theodore M., The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900 (Princeton, 1986)Google Scholar; MacKenzie, Donald, Statistics in Britain, 1865–1930: The Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge (Edinburgh, 1981)Google Scholar; Desrosières, La politique.

20. Stanziani, Alessandro, Histoire de la qualité alimentaire (Paris, 2005)Google Scholar.

21. Kingston-Mann, In Search of the True West.

22. Darrow, David, “From Commune to Household: Statistics and the Social Construction of Chaianov’s Theory of Peasant Economy,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 43, no. 4 (October 2001): 788818 Google ScholarPubMed; Veselovskii, Boris B., Istoriia zemstva za sorok let, 4 vols. (Saint Petersburg, 1909–1913)Google Scholar.

23. Z.M. and Svavitskii, N.A. and Tverdova-Svavitskaia, Z.M., Zemskie podvornye perepisi 1880–1913 gg. (Moscow, 1926)Google Scholar; Volkov, Evgenii Z., Agrarno-ekonomicheskaia statistika Rossiii (Moscow, 1922)Google Scholar; Bokarev, Iurii P., Biudzhetnie obsledovanie krest'ianskikh khoziaistv 20-kh godov kak istoricheskii istochnik (Moscow, 1981)Google Scholar; Chetverikov, Nikolai S., Statisticheskie issledovaniia: Teoriia i praktika (Moscow, 1975)Google Scholar; Ptukha, Mikhail, Ocherki po istorii statistiki, 5 vols. (Moscow, 1955–70)Google Scholar.

24. Ianson, Teoriia statistiki.

25. Chuprov, Aleksandr I., Kurs politicheskoi ekonomii (Moscow, 1885)Google Scholar.

26. Kablukov, Nikolai A., Posobie pri mestnyh statistichekkih obsledovaniiakh (Moscow, 1910), 67 Google Scholar.

27. Arsen'ev, Konstantin I., Statisticheskie ocherki Rossii (Saint Petersburg, 1848)Google Scholar.

28. Peshekhonov, Aleksei V., Statisticheskoe opisanie Kaluzhskoi gubernii (Kaluga, 1898)Google Scholar.

29. Svavitskii and Tverdova-Svavtiskaia, Zemskie Podvornye; Veletskii, Sergei N., Zemskaia statistika, 2 vols. (Moscow, 1899)Google Scholar; Orlov, Vladimir I., Statistichekie svedeniia o khoziaistvennom polozhenii Moskovskogo uezda (Moscow, 1877)Google Scholar; Orlov, Vladimir I., Sbornik statisticheskii svedenii po Moskovskoi gubernii (Moscow, 1880)Google Scholar; Fortunatov, Aleksandr, “Obshchii obzor zemskoi statistiki krest'ianskogo khoziaistva,” in Vorontsov, Vasilii Pavlovich, ed., Itogi ekonomicheskogo issledovaniia Rossii po dannym zemskoi statistiki, 2 vols. (Moscow 1892), 1:iii–ivGoogle Scholar.

30. Aleksandr P. Shlikevich, Koletskii uezd: Podvornaia opis' Kozeleskogo uezda, vol. 5, Materialy dlia otsenki zemel'nykh ugodii, sobrannye ekspeditsionnym sposobom statisticheskim otdeleniem pri Chernigovskoi gubernskoi zemskoi uprave (Chernigov, 1882).

31. On this topic, see Stanziani, L’économie en revolution.

32. Fortunatov, “Obshchii obzor,” xvi.

33. For a different perspective, see: Brooks, Jeffrey, When Russia Learned to Read: Literacy and Popular Literature, 1861–1917 (Princeton, 1985)Google Scholar.

34. Nikolai M. Astyrev, “K voprosu ob organizatsii tekushchei zemskoi statistiki,” Russkaia mysl', 1887, no. 5: 43–60.

35. Ibid.

Ibid

36. Fortunatov, “Obshchii obzor”: xix; O-skii, “V Russkoi glushi,” Russkaia mysl', 1910, no. 3: 121.

37. O-skii, “V Russkoi.”

38. Chaianov, Aleksandr V., Ocherki po teorii trudovogo khoziaistva (Moscow, 1912)Google Scholar; Chaianov, Aleksandr V., Organizatsiia krest'ianskogo khoziaistva (Moscow 1925)Google Scholar; Ianson, Iulii, Opyt statisticheskogo issledovanija o krest'ianskikh nadelakh i platezhakh (Saint Petersburg, 1877)Google Scholar; Kablukov, Posobie.

39. Kablukov, Posobie, 54; Pamiatnaia knizhka Tavricheskoi gubernii, vol. 9, Sbornik statisticeskih svedenii po Tavricheskoi gubernii (Simferopol', 1899).

40. Fortunatov, “Obshchii obzor,” xvi; Kablukov, Posobie, 15.

41. Rossiiskaia gosudarstvennaia biblioteka (RGB), fond rukopisei, M 9503/12 (A.I. Chuprov, pis'mo ot Timiriatsev, 1907). See also: 17/ 1/1908 (A.I. Chuprov, K Timiriatsevu, in Konstantin Timiriatsev, Iz vospominanii o dvukh pokoleniiakh (Moscow, 1920), 69–77.) A.I. Chuprov, Reforma zemledeliia v Italii (Moscow, 1906).

42. On Tenishev, see introduction to Firsov, B.M. and Kiseleva, I.G., Byt' velikorusskikh krest'ian-zemlepashtsev (Saint Petersburg, 1993)Google Scholar.

43. Rossiiskii etnograficheskii muzei (REM), fond (f.) 7, opis (op.) 1, dela (d.) 1, 4.

44. REM, f. 7, op. 1, d. 32, list (ll.) 4–8, 28, 73.

45. Ibid., d. 32, ll. 31–39.

Ibid

46. This critical use of zemstvo statistics began already in the political debate in Russia between Lenin, the other social-democrats, and the so-called “populist” authors. Then this same debate developed in Soviet Russia, see few names within a huge bibliography: Anfimov, Krest'ianskoe khoziaistvo Evropeiskoi Rossii; Koval'chenko, Ivan D. and Milov, L.D., Vserossiiskii agrarnyi rynok XVIII-nachalo XX veka (Moscow, 1974)Google Scholar; Mironov, Boris, Istoriia v tsifrakh: Matematika v istoricheskikh issledovaniiakh (Moscow, 1991)Google Scholar. Examples in western countries include Robinson, Geroid T., Rural Russia under the Old Regime (London, 1932)Google Scholar; Crisp, Olga, Studies in the Russian Economy Before 1914 (New York, 1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Leonard, Carol, Agrarian Reform in Russia: The Road from Serfdom (Cambridge, Eng., 2011)Google Scholar; Dennison and Nafziger, “Micro Perspectives.”

47. Witold Kula, trans. Szreter, Richard, Measures and Men (Princeton, 1986)Google Scholar.

48. For example, see: Strumilin, Stanislav Gustavovich, Biudget vremeni russkogo rabochego i krestianitsa v 1922–1923 gody: Statistiko-ekonomiceskie ocherki (Moscow, 1924).

49. Kablukov, Posobie, 66.

50. Orlov, Sbornik; Peshekhonov, Statisticheskoe.

51. Stanziani, L’économie en revolution.

52. Bokarev, Biudzhetnye obsledovanie, 53.

53. Robinson, Rural Russia Under the Old Regime; Gerschenkron, Alexander, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, Mass, 1962)Google Scholar.

54. Steven Hoch, “Famine, Disease and Mortality Patterns”; Steven Hoch, “On Good Numbers and Bad”; Hoch, Steven, “Serfs in Imperial Russia: Demographic Insights,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 13, no. 2 (Fall 1982): 221–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

55. Wheatcroft, Stephen, “Crisis and Condition of the Peasantry in Late Imperial Russia,” in Kingston-Mann, Esther and Mixter, Timothy, eds., Peasant Economy, Culture and Politics of European Russia, 1800−1921 (Princeton, 1991), 128–72Google Scholar.

56. Wilbur, Elvira M., “Was Russian Peasant Agriculture Really That Impoverished? New Evidence From a Case Study From the ‘Impoverished Center’ at the End of the Nineteenth Century,” Journal of Economic History 43, no. 1 (March 1983): 137144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kingston-Mann, Esther, “Marxism and Russian Rural Development: Problems of Evidence, Experience and Culture,” American Historical Review 86, no. 4 (October 1981): 731752 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Simms, James Y. Jr, “The Crisis in Russian Agriculture at the End of the Nineteenth Century: A Different View,” Slavic Review 36, no. 3 (Fall 1977): 377–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Simms, James Jr, “The Crop Failure of 1891: Soil Exhaustion, Technological Backwardness, and Russia’s Agrarian Crisis,” Slavic Review 41, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 236–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

57. Rossiia, “Redaktsionnye Kommissii dlia sostavleniia polozhenii o krest'ianakh, vykhodiashchikh iz krepostnoi zavisimosti,” Svedeniia o tsenakh na zemli naselenniia i nenaseleniia, vol. 14; Prilozheniia k trudam Redaktsionnykh Kommissii dlia sostavleniia polozheniio krest'ianakh vykhodiashchikh iz krepostnoi za visimosti (Saint Petersburg, 1860), 7–9.

58. Artur Bushen, Nalichnoe naselenie imperii za 1858 god. Vol. 2, Statisticheskiia tablitsy Rossiiskoi imperii (St. Petersburg, 1863); Nikolai A. Troinitskii (ed.), Pervaia vseobshchaia perepis naseleniia Rossiiskoiimperii 1897 g. (St. Petersburg, 1905).

59. Bushnell, John, Eklof, Ben, and Zakharova, Larisa G., eds., Velikie reformy v Rossii, 1856–1874 (Moscow, 1992)Google Scholar; Bushnell, John, Eklof, Ben, and Zakharova, Larisa G., eds, Russia’s Great Reforms, 1855–1881 (Bloomington, 1994)Google Scholar.

60. Troinitskii, Aleksandr, Krepostnoe naselenie v Rossii po 10 narodnoi perepisi (Saint Petersburg, 1861), 45Google Scholar.

61. Emmons, Terence, The Russian Landed Gentry and the Peasant Emancipation of 1861 (Cambridge, Eng., 1968)Google Scholar.

62. Emmons, The Russian Landed Gentry.

63. Saunders, David, Russia in the Age of Reaction and Reform, 1801–1881 (London, 1992)Google Scholar.

64. Hoch, Steven, “The Banking Crisis, Peasant Reforms, and Economic Development in Russia, 1857–1861,” American Historical Review 96, no. 3 (June 1991): 795820 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

65. Litvak, Boris, Russkaia derevnia v reforme 1861 goda: Chernozemnyi tsentr 1861–1895 gg. (Moscow, 1972)Google Scholar; Kashchenko, Sergei, Reforma 19 Fevralia 1861 goda na severo-zapade Rossii (Moscow, 1995)Google Scholar.

66. Rossiia Gosudarstvennyi bank, Otchet gosudarstvennago banka po vykupnoi operatsii s otkrytiia vykupa: po 1 ianvaria 1892 (Saint- Petersburg 1893), 1–4.

67. Rossiia Gosudarstvennyi bank, Otchet gosudarstvennago banka po vykupnoi operatsii (Saint Petersburg, 1893–1908).

68. Reinbot, A.E., ed., Materialy po statistike dvizheniia zemlevladeniia v Rossii, 25 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1896–1917)Google Scholar.

69. Hoch, Steven, “Did Russia’s Emancipated Serfs Really Pay Too Much for Too Little Land? Statistical Anomalies and Long-Tailed Distributions,” Slavic Review 63, no. 2 (Summer 2004): 247–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

70. Veletskii, Zemskaia, vol. 1, 155–57.

71. Ippolit Verner, “Statistika pered sudom kurskogo zemstva,” Russkaia mysl', 1887, 7: 152–76.

72. Statisticheskoe otdelenie Nizhegorodskoi gubernoi zemskoi upravy, Sel’sko-khoziaistvennyi obzor Nizhegorodskii gubernii (Nizhnii Novgorod, 1892–1903).

73. Kotsonis, States of Obligation.

74. Rossiiskii gosudarstvennyi istoricheskii arkhiv (RGIA), f. 1290 (TsSK), op. 2, d. 628; Zolotarev, Andrei, “La propriété foncière dans 50 gouvernatorats de la Russie d’Europe en 1905,” in Bulletin de l’Institut International de Statistique 17 (Copenhagen 1908): 176208 Google Scholar.

75. O-skii, “V russkoi glushi,” 105–11; Fedor Shcherbina, Krest'ianskie biudzhety (Voronezh, 1900); Orlov, Sbornik.

76. Kain, Roger and Baignet, Elizabeth, The Cadastral Map in the Service of the State: A History of Property Mapping (Chicago, 1992)Google Scholar.

77. Kablukov, Posobie, 8–10.

78. Ezhegodnik Glavnogo upravleniia zemleustroistva i zemledeliia po Departmentu zemledeliia i Lesnomu departmentu (Saint Petersburg, 1908−1916).

79. Gregory, Paul, Russian National Income, 1885–1913 (Cambridge, 1982)Google Scholar.

80. Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness; Dennison, The Institutions; Nafziger, “Land Commune.”

81. Sewell, William H., Logics of History: Social Theory and Social Transformation (Chicago, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

82. Steinmetz, George, ed, The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences: Positivism and Its Epistemological Others (Durham, 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

83. Porter, Theodore M., Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life (Princeton, 1995)Google Scholar; Blum and Mespoulet, L’anarchie bureaucratique; Kotsonis, Making Peasants Backward.

84. Institut international de statistique, Bulletin (Brussels, 1866–1896); de Neumann-Spallart, M.F.X, “La fondation de l’Institut international de statistique,” in Bulletin de l’Institut international de statistique 1, (Rome 1886): 134 Google Scholar.

85. This same epistemological approach—avoiding any opposition between quantities-facts and “opinion”—is well developed in the works of Darrow, Kotsonis, Khristoforov, and Blum mentioned in previous sources. It is also widespread in other fields. Among the best outcomes: Tooze, J. Adam, Statistics and the German State, 1900–1945: The Making of Modern Economic Knowledge (Cambridge, Eng., 2001)Google Scholar; Tooze, J. Adam, The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (New York, 2007)Google Scholar; Perrot, Jean-Claude, Une histoire intellectuelle de l’économie politique, XVIIe-XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1992)Google Scholar; Mary Poovey, A History of the Modern Fact; Desrosières, La politique.

86. Sewell, Logics of History.

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 41
Total number of PDF views: 256 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 02nd May 2017 - 12th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

European Statistics, Russian Numbers, and Social Dynamics, 1861–1914
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

European Statistics, Russian Numbers, and Social Dynamics, 1861–1914
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

European Statistics, Russian Numbers, and Social Dynamics, 1861–1914
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *