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THE OUT-LETTER BOOK OF GOVERNOR PERCY KIRKE, CONTAINING HIS DISPATCHES FROM TANGIER, 1681–1683, TO SECRETARY JENKINS, AND TO THE LORDS OF THE TREASURY

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2023

Extract

Yours of the 9.th of May came hither after Coll. Sackville's departure, and finds this Garrison at present under my command, wherein I shall endeavour to behave my self with that fidelity and vigilance as becomes so great a trust, and that zeal I have ever had for his Ma.ties service which I study to promote here. I cannot but recommend myself and affaires to your protection that they may have the happinesse of being represented favourably to his Maj.tie.

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Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Royal Historical Society

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References

1 Press P in the Glass Closet in Horace Walpole's Library, Strawberry Hill (Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis, Horace Walpole's Library (Cambridge, 1958), 16).

2 This was the Letter Book's catalogue reference number in the Phillipps Collection.

3 Sir Leoline Jenkins (see App. A).

4 Sir James Lesley (Routh, Tangier, 207–214; Childs, Kirke, 38–40). See Introduction; Letter 5; App. A.

5 An alcaid, or qaid, was the commander of a castle or fortress, the Moroccan equivalent of an English governor.

6 Omar Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Alcazar (see App. A).

7 Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif, sultan of Morocco (see App. A).

8 HMY Anne (unrated, 8 three-pounder cannon) was built at Woolwich during 1661 by Master Shipwright Sir Christopher Pett (1620–1668) for James, duke of York, who named her after his first wife, Anne Hyde (1637–1671). A 52 × 19-footer drawing 7 feet, this single-masted vessel of 100 tons joined the Straits squadron in 1680 and was assigned specifically to Tangier, 1681–1684, under the command of Captain John Neville, RN, 1680–1681, and Captain George Aylmer, RN, 1681–1684. In 1686, she was sold to the London Customs House. A painting of the Royal Yacht Anne in action against Kronborg Castle, Elsinore, in 1670, attributed to a follower of Willem van der Velde the Younger (1633–1707), hangs in Doddington Hall, Doddington, Lincolnshire (J.J. Colledge, Ships of the Royal Navy (London, 2003), 17; Alan Major, Royal Yachts (Stroud, 2011); M. Guest and W.B. Boulton, The Royal Yacht Squadron (London, 1902), 6–7). See App. A, AYLMER, George; NEVILLE, John.

9 Pratique. There is a note in the margin: ‘ye yacht denied pratick at Cadiz’.

10 El Puerto de Santa María, situated on the east shore of the Bay of Cadiz.

11 An epidemic of bubonic plague affected the western Mediterranean basin throughout the 1680s.

12 The Tangier Committee, a committee of the Privy Council charged with administering the colony of Tangier.

13 Tangier's first military hospital occupied one of the many civilian houses left vacant by the departing Portuguese and, despite several schemes to find or construct alternative premises, so it continued until the evacuation in 1684 (Arni, Hospital Care, 12–16; Routh, Tangier, 300–304).

14 The Tangier Committee was charged with clothing the garrison, whereas, in Scotland, Ireland, and England, responsibility fell upon a regiment's colonel-proprietor. Both agencies, however, followed similar procedures. Patterns were agreed with civilian suppliers and contracts arranged, the necessary funds were then borrowed and advanced, and the outlay recouped over two years via ‘off-reckonings’ of c.2d a day from the soldiers’ pay. Naturally, there was every incentive to maximize profit by cutting costs. A compulsory, biennial clothing rota was introduced on 30 May 1690 (A.J. Guy, Oeconomy and Discipline: Officership and Administration in the British Army, 1714–1763 (Manchester, 1985), 147–157; Childs, Army of Charles II, 56–61; Childs, Army of William III, 167–171). See App. A, GAY, James.

15 Edward Sackville (see App. A).

16 Initially, each of the four infantry regiments included a surgeon while those of John Fitzgerald and Lewis Farrell also employed surgeon's mates. These posts had been reduced by 1668. Thereafter, a physician, surgeon, surgeon's mate, and an apothecary were appointed to the garrison staff. Kirke was here seeking extra provision to cope with the increasing numbers of sick (Dalton, Army Lists, I. 33–34, 40–41, 269, 302–303; Arni, Hospital Care, 21–22).

17 Neither the hospital nor the garrison regiments had designated cooks. Each man was responsible for dressing his own victuals although unofficial messes were formed to share the duties. Salted pork or beef, the basic Tangier ration, was soaked in fresh water for as long as possible prior to final rinsing and boiling, sophisticated culinary methods long practised in the Royal Navy. Roast salt meat is unpalatable (see Letter 76).

18 Apart from accommodation for duty units in the Upper Castle and the larger redoubts in the ‘Lines’, there were no barracks. The soldiers were billeted on private householders or accommodated in the churches and numerous houses left empty by the departed Portuguese. Discipline and unit cohesion consequently suffered. Tangier was a crown colony, so all property belonged to the king. There were 429 buildings in 1678: 231 were let on leases of twenty-one years and 198 were used by the military (Routh, Tangier, 56, 259, 370–372).

19 Al-Hajj Mohammed Lucas (see App. A).

20 See Letter 7; App. C.

21 Vice Admiral François Louis de Rousselet, marquis de Château-Renault (see App. A).

22 Alexander MacKenny (see App. A).

23 Haik. White, cotton, cloth, much used in Arab attire.

24 Estacade. In this context, it probably means a line of stakes marking the boundary between Tangier and Morocco.

25 Phineas Bowles (see App. A).

26 Captain Richard Carter, RN (see App. A).

27 Admiral Arthur Herbert (see App. A).

28 Thomas Langston (see App. A).

29 See Letter 1.

30 Meknès.

31 Henry Withers (see App. A).

32 George Talbot (see App. A).

33 Lieutenant Colonel Sir Palmes Fairborne (see App. A).

34 Garrett FitzGerald (see App. A).

35 George Wingfield (see App. A).

36 Corbett Henne (see App. A).

37 George Bowes (see App. A).

38 Thomas Hussey (see App. A).

39 The continuance of foreign enclaves on Moroccan territory caused Moulay Ismail to adopt a policy of consistent hostility towards Spain and Portugal but good relations with France. An ambassador, Mohammed Temim, attended the Court of Louis XIV in 1682. He also sought additional European allies (see Letter 103).

40 Algiers.

41 A saetia, or saettia, was a small, two-masted, lateen-rigged, coastal trading vessel of Venetian design (OED).

42 A barca-longa (barque-longa, barcolongo) was an Iberian fishing vessel, common between the 17th and 19th centuries, usually about 70 feet long with two or three masts each bearing a lugsail (OCSS, 31).

43 When the passage of the Test Act in 1673 obliged the Roman Catholic duke of York to resign as Lord High Admiral, Charles II assumed the role assisted by a new, fifteen-man Admiralty Commission under the chairmanship of Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1618–1692), the ‘first lord’, and served by Samuel Pepys as secretary. The system endured until 1684 (Pepys, Diary, X. 1–5; Davies, Pepys's Navy, 27).

44 Moulay Ismail's ambassador was Alcaid Ahmed Mohammed Attar Ben Haddu (or Ohadu), known to the English as ‘Ben Hadu’ (see App. A).

45 Larache is situated on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, about 100 km south of Tangier. First occupied by the Portuguese in 1471, it passed into Spanish possession in 1610 and was not returned at the Treaty of Lisbon, 1668. Kirke's intelligence was inaccurate: not until 1688 was Larache successfully attacked and the Spaniards expelled. However, the Spanish enclave of La Mamora had fallen earlier that year. On receiving information that its garrison was demoralized and weak, Omar Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Alcazar (see App. A), had been ordered from Tangier to take command of jaysh forces from Tetuan, Sallee, Meknès, Fez, and Alcazar, which were assembling before the town. Arriving on 26 March 1681, Omar captured La Mamora on 2 April, the garrison of 134 men offering no effective resistance after the water supply had been interrupted. The soldiers were enslaved and only the governor, five officers, and the chaplain freed. La Mamora yielded 103 cannon, more than Moulay Ismail possessed in his entire kingdom, plus plentiful ammunition. Tangier's vulnerability was thereby greatly increased, although Moulay Ismail's open pursuit of a French alliance in order to oppose Spain more effectively had caused the latter to become temporarily friendlier towards England (Blunt, Black Sunrise, 203–205; Mercer, 134; Tangier Texts, 45; Windus, 470; App. C, The Tangier Horse).

46 An almocaden was the captain of a company of infantry or the leader of a body of soldiers from a specific tribe. According to John Davis, an almocaden was a subordinate governor of a Moroccan ‘cavila’, an administrative sub-division, but the two definitions are not exclusive (Davis, Queen's, I. 281).

47 According to the unratified Treaty of Meknès, the Moroccans were to receive, inter alia, gifts of woollen cloth, weapons, and gunpowder (CO 279/27, fos 207–211; HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 57).

48 Tangier normally conducted external business in the silver piece-of-eight (real de a ocho), the equivalent of 8 reales. Worth about 2 Dutch guilders or 4s 6d sterling, it was sometimes referred to as the Spanish dollar. The other principal currency within the Mediterranean basin was the Venetian gold ducat, valued at 5 Dutch guilders or 11s 3d sterling. The semi-official currency within the confines of Tangier was the pound sterling although all local moneys were accepted (see Letter 12).

49 Benjamin Price (see App. A).

50 William ‘Tangier’ Smith (see App. A).

51 1681.

52 See Letters 3, 7.

53 1681.

54 Cloth made from ‘blue wool’, high quality combing wool normally taken from a sheep's neck (OED).

55 Cloth dyed violet (OED).

56 A fine, woollen fabric coloured grey or light blue (OED).

57 A courier who conveyed letters and dispatches at regular intervals, i.e. the local Spanish postal service (OED).

58 Thomas Langston (see App. A).

59 Alexander MacKenny (see Apps A and C).

60 1681.

61 Henry Sheres (see App. A).

62 Sharif, Sherif, or Shereef, a term used throughout the Arabic-speaking world, indicated either a descendant of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima, and/or a person of high birth. It could also apply to a senior government official or magistrate.

63 Moulay (Muley, Mawlay, Moulay, Mouley, Mulai) was a formal mode of address for all princes of the Moroccan imperial house, the equivalent of ‘my lord’ or ‘master’.

64 Tafilalt, Tamelt, Tafilet, a region of oases bordering the Northern Sahara Desert, south of the Atlas Mountains. It was noted for the cultivation of dates. The ‘cousin’ in question was probably Moulay Mohammed al-Sharif (Mercer, 128–130).

65 A wheat beer brewed in Brunswick (OED).

66 1681.

67 There is a space here in the manuscript.

68 Bartholomew Pitts (see App. A).

69 Roger Elliott (see App. A).

70 Ahmed Ben Haddu Hamami (see App. A). The semi-independent port and pirate base of Tetuan, 60 km east of Tangier, had been seized by Moulay Ismail from the al-Naksis family in 1673 but its allegiance to the Moroccan sultan remained fragile. See Mohamed ben Azzouz Hakim, Alwad al-Naksis fi Hokmi Titawen (985–1084/1578–1673) (Tetuan, 2002).

71 William Booth (see App. A).

72 Henry Trelawny (see App. A).

73 Charles Robinson (see App. A).

74 Al-Hajj Mohammed Lucas (see App. A).

75 to act against (OED).

76 HMS Tyger (5th rate, 46 guns), commanded by Captain Francis Wheler, RN, was usually known as English Tyger to distinguish her from HMS Turkish Tyger or Tyger Prize (4th rate, 48 guns), commanded by Captain Matthew Aylmer, RN (see App. A).

77 Especially suitable for riding, the Galloway was a small horse peculiar to that eponymous Scottish region (OED).

78 There is an addition in the margin to this paragraph: ‘Reasons that induced the Governor to present the Emperor wth ye six Slaves.’

79 A ditch or moat.

80 Counter-mine tunnels, or galleries, were frequently built into fortresses during initial construction. The intention was to enable a camouflet to be positioned beneath the anticipated location of a potential attacker's third parallel (C. Duffy, The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great, 1660–1789 (London, 1985), 297). Kirke evidently took these defensive precautions in anticipation of a European-style siege.

81 Omar Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Alcazar (see App. A).

82 Ahmed Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Tetuan (see App. A). ‘Sidi’ was a most respectful form of address granted to those of very high social standing. Its diminutive, Sid or Cid, was reserved for all those named after the Prophet Mohammed and thus much more widely applied.

83 In 1681, Ali Ben Abdallah Hamami succeeded his brother, Omar, as alcaid of Alcazar (see App. A).

84 Ahmed Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Tetuan (see App. A).

85 Arthur Herbert (see App. A).

86 Mazagan, modern El Jadida, a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, was captured by the Portuguese in 1502 and retained until 1769. Its well-preserved artillery fortifications resulted in listing as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.

87 Benedict Thistlethwaite (see App. A).

88 Tlemcen in Algeria, lying to the south-west of Oran within a few miles of the Moroccan border, had been occupied by Spain in 1543; Morocco, 1543–1544; and captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1550 (Lempriere, William, A Tour through the Dominions of the Emperor of Morocco (London, 1813), 4446Google Scholar).

89 John Wyborne (see App. A).

90 1681.

91 Jonas Rowland (see App. A).

92 A seguro (Spanish) was a written guarantee of safe conduct.

93 1681.

94 See App. A.

95 The Royal Scots (see App. C).

96 Probably painted silk.

97 A bill, an old-fashioned infantry weapon, comprised an axe-head mounted on a long shaft, which was usually stained brown or black prior to varnishing (OED).

98 Most British infantry was still armed with the matchlock musket although replacement by the longer and more efficient fusil (firelock, flintlock) was proceeding steadily.

99 Fountain Fort, standing towards the southern extremity of the outer ring of fortifications, guarded one the city's few remaining, reliable water sources. Conduits, fed from catchment areas in the highlands to the south and south-east, ran along the line of the Old Fez Road and beneath the fort. Apparently, the existence of these channels was unknown to the Moors, although this is very hard to credit (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 91). See Letter 66.

100 Bridges Fort, more properly Bridge's Fort, was named after Sir Tobias Bridge (see App. A).

101 Pole Fort, previously Catherine Fort, was a square, roofed blockhouse flanked by two flèches, adjacent to Bridge's Fort on the inner ring of fortifications (Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 186–203; Hendrick Danckerts, ‘A View of Tangier, 1669’, Royal Collection Trust, RCIN 402578).

102 A small cannon or mortar used for firing salutes (OED).

103 Named after Queen Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705), wife of Charles II, Catharina Port, or Catherine Gate, was the principal landward entrance. Situated towards the southern extent of the enceinte, it was protected by a barbican, ravelin, and palisades. Beyond lay the English military cemetery. The ‘spurre of Catharina Gate’ was the apex of the covering ravelin (Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 163, 202–203).

104 Peterborough Tower, named after the first English governor of Tangier, had originally been constructed by the Portuguese as the Noronha Tower – Alfonso de Noronha had governed Tangier, 1610–1614, and Luis de Noronha, 1614–1615 – and assumed its final form between 1624 and 1628. Built into the northern side of the Upper Castle, it was a vital observation post, its height providing a long-range view across the two lines of outworks into the broken country beyond, partly compensating for the domination of Tangier by higher ground to the south and west. It also commanded a renowned panorama across the Straits of Gibraltar. Such observation towers, integral components in the ‘Rebate’ system of colonial defence, were regular features of Portuguese fortresses in North Africa (Wenceslaus Hollar, A Prospect of the Country from Peterborough Tower (London, 1673); Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 328–329). See App. C, Militia.

105 Usually referred to by the English as Devil's Drop, this small, palisaded blockhouse at the foot of low cliffs falling to the Atlantic shore, garrisoned by a dozen men under a sergeant, anchored the northern flank of the outer ring of fortifications. It lay within supporting distance of Fort Henrietta. The post was much too weak for such an important role and had fallen to the Moroccans on 14 May 1680 (Wenceslaus Hollar, Henrietta Fort (London, 1673); Luke, Tangier, 141; Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 427).

106 William Smith (see App. A).

107 Henry Hordesnell was recorder in June 1683 (see Letter 140; App. A).

108 The Water Gate gave access through the town walls on to the quay and mole (Wenceslaus Hollar, Tangier from Above, without the Water Gate (London, 1673); Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 365–366).

109 The Royal Scots (see App. C).

110 Hyde's, or Hide's, Battery was situated on the town walls overlooking the harbour. In 1683, Tangier was defended by thirteen batteries: Hyde's (6 cannon), Old Parade (5 cannon), Ordnance Rabonnett (3 mortars), Mole (10 cannon), Governor's Bastion (9 cannon), Stayner's (2 cannon), Johnson's (12 cannon), Irish (16 cannon), Sally Port (3 cannon), Peterborough Tower (19 cannon), Lawson's (7 cannon), Boleing Bar (10 cannon plus 10 mortars), and Curtain Wall (6 cannon).

111 The 2nd Tangier Regiment (see App. C).

112 See App. C, Militia.

113 The 1st Tangier Regiment (see App. C).

114 In 1678, each English foot regiment created one company of ‘grenadiers’, equipped with hand grenades, flintlock muskets, and plug bayonets. Instead of the regulation wide-brimmed hats, grenadiers wore specially designed, brimless mitres or caps so that their grenade-throwing arms were not impeded (Childs, Army of Charles II, 59; A.S. Robertshaw, ‘The uniforms, equipment and weapons of the English Army of 1688’, in A.J. Guy and J. Spencer-Smith (eds), 1688: Glorious Revolution? The Fall and Rise of the British Army, 1660–1704 (London, 1988), 18, 21, 24, 32; Walton, 427–429, 437–438).

115 Plug bayonets, introduced into the English army in 1678, steadily superseded the pike (Childs, Army of Charles II, 62).

116 Stayner's Battery, named after Vice Admiral Sir Richard Stayner (1625–1662), was situated on the western ramparts of the Upper Castle (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, III. 53).

117 The King's Battalion (see Letter 80; App. C).

118 See App. A.

119 1681.

120 Jonas Rowland (see App. A).

121 Ali Ben Abdallah Hamami, alcaid of Alcazar, wrote to Charles II on 15 December 1681, announcing that Moulay Ismail had dispatched Ambassador Alcaid Ahmed Mohammed Attar Ben Haddu to England. He was accompanied by deputy ambassador Mohammed al-Hafiz, muqaddam (leader or regional governor) of the Fahs (the northern region of the Gharb between Alcazar and Tangier), and a secretary, al-Hajj Mohammed Lucas (Hopkins, Letters, 19). See App. A.

122 Full pay for soldiers in Tangier was issued directly to the London-based agent of each troop or company captain who then forwarded the cash to Tangier by the next available ship. However, if the troop or company commander was on furlough in England, as was often the case, then the agent paid him the money, which he was expected to dispatch promptly to Tangier but these transfers were frequently much delayed, leaving the soldiers unpaid and obliged to seek other means of subsistence until their officer returned. The list of debts owed by the military to the civilian inhabitants, tabulated in 1686 and 1687, suggests that the soldiers survived on extensive, extended credit, often pledged against their uniforms and equipment, plus remuneration for casual porterage in the harbour and general labouring work, especially on the mole and fortifications, when other duties permitted. Some of the more entrepreneurial, or their wives, opened public houses (CTB, 1685–1689, 844–847; Routh, Tangier, 345; Childs, Army of Charles II, 127–128).

123 Kirke's reply to Moulay Ismail is printed in, Tangier Texts, 225.

124 1681.

125 1681.

126 1681.

127 HMS Mary Rose (4th rate, 40 guns). Her commander was Captain John Ashby, RN (see App. A).

128 Archaic spelling of ‘as soon’.

129 Bartholomew Pitts and Roger Elliott (see Letter 19; App. A).

130 James Lesley (see App. A).

131 John Giles (see App. A).

132 David Roche (see App. A).

133 Bartholomew Pitts (see App. A).

134 Brent Ely (see App. A).

135 Andrew Mortimer (see App. A).

136 Arthur Bradshaw (see App. A).

137 William Culliford (see App. A).

138 Stephen Hobson (see App. A).

139 Charles Fox (see App. A).

140 This ‘kinsman’ was not Captain Percy Kirke, RN but may have been the governor's son, Percy Kirke (1683–1741), in which case he was entered on the regimental rolls while still a new-born baby (Childs, Kirke, 187–188). See App. A.

141 William McGill (see App. A).

142 Thomas Barbour (see App. A).

143 See Apps A and C.

144 Simon Duff (see App. A).

145 Samuel Pepys reported that this punishment was extensively employed in 1683–1684. He seems to have assumed that it was an example of Kirke's gratuitous cruelty rather than a legitimate sentence long approved by the principal secretary of state and the Tangier Committee (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 92; Childs, Kirke, 53).

146 Middleton Wingfield Wootton (see App. A).

147 George Westcombe (see App. A).

148 John Martin (see App. A).

149 The 1st Tangier Regiment.

150 Captain Charles Nedby of the Tangier Horse (see Letter 11; App. A).

151 William Hewer (see App. A).

152 ‘In the dark’, was one of Kirke's favourite expressions.

153 Sir James Lesley (see App. A).

154 1681/2.

155 John Erlisman (see App. A).

156 1681/2.

157 See App. A.

158 Aside from rents for the king's houses and fines imposed by the law courts, the principal sources of Tangier's local revenue – excise, wharfage, cranage, porterage, and herbage – were farmed by contractors. Porterage was charged at 2d per one man's burthen (75–120 lbs) and the work was undertaken by slaves, until their release in 1682, and then by soldiers (Routh, Tangier, 152–154. For a bibliography, see Cormack, Pensioners, 2).

159 A bagnio was a prison, or secure hostel, for the detention of slaves. In 1671, the Tangier bagnio accommodated 79 slaves owned by the military government, mostly employed on building the mole: there were also 17 in private ownership. In 1682, when the king ordered the release of all slaves, these numbers were 37 and 42 respectively: private owners were compensated by a payment of 100 pieces-of-eight per slave. Bagnio could also mean a bath house and, by extension, a brothel (Pepys, Dairy, X. 410; Routh, Tangier, 141, 229, 273). See Letter 41.

160 Robert Cuthbert (see App. A).

161 James Waring (see App. A).

162 Daniel Vansusterfleet (see App. A).

163 Stockades enclosing the various forts and blockhouses.

164 Thomas St John (see App. A).

165 William Webster (see App. A).

166 Henry Rowe (see App. A).

167 John Martin (see App. A).

168 Pepys subsequently accused Kirke of both building and employing ‘his little bathing house’ for immoral purposes. This was probably fair comment but the original intention had been to improve the garrison's health and hygiene. This bath house was distinct and separate from the ‘bagnio’, the slave prison (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 90, 92). See Letter 39.

169 1681/2.

170 Four provinces, previously independent kingdoms, comprised the sultanate of Morocco: Fez, Morocco, Tafilet, and, the most southerly, Sus, named after the eponymous river at the mouth of which stood the ancient capital city of Santa Cruz, a Portuguese foundation destroyed by an earthquake in 1731. Its site is now occupied by the modern port city of Agadir. ‘Muley Hamet’ was Moulay Ahmed ibn Muhriz, Moulay Ismail's nephew. See App. A.

171 Mohammed al-Hafiz (see App. A).

172 Oran, now Algeria's second city, was under Spanish occupation, 1509–1708, and 1732–1792.

173 From 1671, Algeria, a major base for pirates aand privateers, was a virtually autonomous province within the Ottoman Empire. It was ruled by a dey: Mohammed I (1671–1682); Baba Hassan (r.1682–1683), and Mezzo Morto Hüsseyin (1683–1686). In June 1681, Moulay Ismail's half-hearted movement against Tlemcen, which had been reinforced by Turkish troops, was easily repulsed (Mercer, 127–128).

174 Ahmed ibn Muhriz (see App. A).

175 Cuthbert Carre (see App. A).

176 James Gay (see App. A).

177 Robert Ogilby (see App. A).

178 John Pinkney (see App. A).

179 1681/2.

180 A puncheon was a large cask or barrel (OED).

181 The resident military engineer was Johannes Ewald Tessin. In 1675, the Ordnance Office had provided Tangier with an engineer, a keeper of magazines and stores, an assistant storekeeper, a master carpenter, a firemaster, a gunsmith, and a master gunner assisted by 16 gunners. During the emergency in 1680, the number of gunners was increased to 52 (see App. A, NOLDEN, Ernestus; TESSIN, Johannes Ewald).

182 A firemaster to supervise the local manufacture, acquisition, and storage of gunpowder and pyrotechnics was appointed and supervised by the Comptroller of Fireworks in the Ordnance Office in the Tower of London. Members of his staff were known as ‘fireworkers’ (OED; Tomlinson, Guns, 14, 47, 49, 55, 57, 77, 107, 237–238).

183 A master gunner was usually appointed to each garrison. He was responsible to the local governor and the Master Gunner of the Ordnance Office in London. This position was held by James Hunter in 1683 (Tomlinson, Guns, 238–239; Drenth and Riley, I. 143). See App. A, HUNTER, James.

184 The 2nd Tangier Regiment (see App. C).

185 Sallee, variously Sala, Salla, Salli, Salee, Sallee, Salé, Sali, on the Atlantic coast in the north-west of Morocco is now a suburb of modern Rabat. Moulay Ismail exercised little effective control over this virtually independent city state and den of pirates, the infamous Sallee Rovers.

186 John Creed (see App. A).

187 Bernard Tessin (see App. A).

188 John Giles (see App. A).

189 A town major was the chief executive officer in a garrison or fortress, responsible for billeting, routine day-to-day administration, and discipline. He reported directly to the governor. The officer in question was John White (see App. A, ALSOP, Roger; DAVIS, William; HOPE, John; WHITE, John).

190 William Davis (see App. A).

191 John Burgess (see App. A).

192 William Berry (see App. A).

193 John Martin (see App. A).

194 Charles Collier (see App. A).

195 Lieutenant Rugeley (see App. A).

196 John Jeffreys (see App. A).

197 Edward Griffith (see App. A).

198 Samuel Arnold (see App. A).

199 1681/2.

200 A reference, perhaps, to the internationalism of Sephardic Jewry. See Richard L. Kagan and Philip D. Morgan (eds), Atlantic Diasporas: Jews, Conversos, and Crypto-Jews in the Age of Mercantilism, 1500–1800 (Baltimore, MD, 2009).

201 The States General of the Dutch Republic.

202 fund.

203 Joseph Bueno Mesquita (see App. A).

204 Abraham Maimarān (see App. A).

205 Kirke was commissioned governor of Tangier on 26 January 1682 (Childs, Kirke, 40).

206 Anthony Sturt (see App. A).

207 Sidney Godolphin (see App. A).

208 Henry Sheres (see App. A).

209 Childs, Kirke, 37–39. See Letters 1, 5.

210 Ernestus Nolden (see App. A).

211 Richard Holder (see App. A).

212 Assuming that here ‘prest’ means ‘ready/prepared’, this sentence might read: ‘In former dispatches I have represented ye necessitie of preventing the conclusion of the Treatie between ye States of Holland & this Emperor, which would certainly so weaken his Ma.ties interests here that I am once more ready to use all means effectually to hinder it.’

213 A tartan, or tartane, was a small, single-masted, lateen-rigged, sailing vessel used for fishing and coastal trade throughout the Mediterranean. It carried a crew of up to 30 men (OCSS, 576–577).

214 A cafila was a caravan or string of pack horses, often military in nature (OED).

215 This clause might be better expressed, ‘had reconsidered my promise and found it ineffectual.’

216 In April 1682, Herbert secured a peace at sea with Algiers but it is not clear whether this agreement achieved the status of a formal treaty (Hornstein, 145–147).

217 John Facey (see App. A).

218 Henry Hordesnell (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 334). See Letter 141; App. A.

219 William Smith (see App. A).

220 Nicholas Sandford (see App. A).

221 Because of their value as dealers, bankers, go-betweens with the Moroccans, translators into Spanish, Portuguese, and Arabic, and general facilitators, in 1662 Governor Lord Peterborough permitted the Jews to stay in Tangier. Most lived in Jews’ Lane, adjacent to the synagogue. In the light of this relatively warm welcome, which was at notable variance with the frosty attitude of the Roman Catholic Portuguese, more families were subsequently tempted to settle. Colonel John Fitzgerald, lieutenant governor from 1664–1666, was warned not to let too many Jews live within the town because they were highly influential in trade and commerce, often to the detriment of the interests of English merchants. Out of a total civilian population of 700 in 1676, there were 51 Jews, 5 Moors, and 130 ‘foreigners’. In 1677, the Jews were formally banished but this diktat was never enforced and most remained, including Solomon Pariente. When numbers began to rise again, Governor Kirke threatened to lodge them in tents beyond the town walls but this was nothing more than typically Kirkeian bluster (Gerald MacLean and Nabil Matar, Britain and the Islamic World (Oxford 2011), 174–178; Meakin, Land of the Moors, 121–122, 127). See Letters 67, 125; App. A, PARIENTE, Solomon.

222 The town militia.

223 This man was not Captain Robert Hodges of the Royal Scots.

224 Attentiveness, awareness (OED).

225 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.

226 The official and unofficial absence of commissioned officers, especially company and troop captains, was a significant problem throughout the home military establishments. It was, understandably, particularly prevalent in unpopular, remote, and dangerous overseas stations where, having engineered their escape, absentees were usually reluctant to return. It was an extension of the common contemporary practice whereby government office holders accepted full salaries, privileges, and perquisites but then employed deputies, at lower rates of pay, to execute the necessary duties. The military variant was especially attractive and cheap because the state already provided, and paid for, substitutes in the form of subalterns and NCOs (Childs, Army of Charles II, 42, 123).

227 This thorough survey formed the basis for both planning the evacuation in 1684 and Samuel Pepys's subsequent adjudication of claims for compensation (Childs, Kirke, 48).

228 John Luke (see App. A).

229 1682.

230 Raise (prices, value of) (OED).

231 See App. A.

232 Moulay Mohammed al-Sheikh, sultan of Morocco (r.1636–1655), was a son of Sultan Moulay Zaidan al-Nasir (r.1603–1637). See Letter 62.

233 The Spanish royal palace of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 50 km north-west of Madrid.

234 HMS Newcastle (4th rate, 44 guns), Captain Edward Russell, RN (see App. A).

235 A candle auction, a common form of public sale during the second half of the 17th century.

236 The Spanish real was worth ⅛ of one piece-of-eight.

237 Captain Edward Russell, RN, commander of HMS Newcastle (see Letter 59; App. A).

238 Sultan Moulay Mohammed al-Sheikh. See Letter 58.

239 This wondrous story of buried treasure, the location of which was indicated by a secret code written on the first leaf of a manuscript, was entirely fictitious. However, it provided Kirke with a bargaining counter when negotiating with Moulay Ismail at the time when the English diplomatic position was most disadvantageous. For a fuller account, see Nabil Matar, ‘Arabic Books and a Moroccan Treasure: Colonel Percival Kirke and Mulay Ismail, 1682–1683’, The Seventeenth Century, 26 (2011), 119–129.

240 Richard and Benjamin Holder (see App. A, HOLDER, Richard).

241 An elderly merchantman of 200 tons (CSPDI, 1651, 507).

242 Safi lies on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Casablanca.

243 Santa Cruz, modern Agadir.

244 Ahmed ibn Muhriz (see App. A).

245 Richard Holder (see App. A).

246 In an undated letter, probably written in July 1682, Kirke urged Moulay Ismail to ratify both the Treaty of Meknès and the London maritime treaty negotiated by Ben Haddu (Tangier Texts, 229–230).

247 The state of the garrison artillery had been a matter of concern to Kirke since the beginning of his governorship. Many tubes were ancient and corroded, the carriages broken and rotten, and the gunners untrained and/or incompetent (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 63, 73–74, 79; Childs, Kirke, 43–44).

248 Tangier's water supply had been overhauled by the Portuguese, 1657–1658. In 1662, the out-going governor, Don Luis de Almeida, Count of Avintes (d.1671), presented Lord Peterborough with a book containing details of the local hydrology. Unfortunately, Peterborough took this with him when leaving the government in December and subsequent attempts at recovery were unsuccessful. Winter, spring, and autumn rainfall was collected in three ways. First, in small reservoirs – called ‘tanks’ or ‘cisterns’ – filled from local springs and situated both within the town and, since the early 16th century, inside the principal out-forts. Secondly, water from the highlands to the south and south-east was carried along the line of the Old Fez Road in subterranean conduits that terminated at Fountain Fort. Thirdly, an ancient Maghribi and Portuguese network of underground pipes ran from the Marshan Plateau, which was situated to the west and south-west of the town. Some channels from the Marshan filled a cistern in the market place and supplied wells, known as fountains, for at least 50 private houses, while others served Whitehall Fort, which stood on the Marshan, irrigating the bowling green and kitchen garden as well as supplying a drinking trough for cattle. In 1662, a pipeline was built from the principal town cistern to the wharf to ‘water’ ships directly. Although Colonel Roger Alsop had this pipeline repaired in 1674, subsequent poor management had allowed the Marshan water courses and their subordinate fountains to silt-up and the whole complex was so out of order by 1680, a year of severe drought across much of Morocco, that the conduits ending under Fountain Fort constituted the sole reliable source. By tapping the memories of some of the older Portuguese residents, Kirke uncovered and restored an ancient water course enabling the re-opening of 20 fountains during 1682. Nevertheless, the situation remained critical. Prolonged drought would have jeopardized the English occupation and the generally poor state of the water system was one of myriad reasons behind the final abandonment of the colony (Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 71–72, 78, 150–161, 237, 428–430; Routh, Tangier, 256–257; Childs, Kirke, 44; Meakin, Land of the Moors, 102; Miller, Susan Gilson, ‘Watering the Garden of Tangier: Colonial Contestations in a Moroccan City’, Journal of North African Studies, 5 (2000), 2550CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mercer, 131). See Letters 28, 91.

249 Thomas Onby (see App. A).

250 HMS Woolwich (4th rate, 54 guns), Captain William Holden, RN (see App. A).

251 Kirke had good reason for concern because Tangier was already highly insecure without admitting additional Moors and Jews. The Anglo-Moroccan-Portuguese-Jewish population of soldiers and their families, merchants and traders, sailors, slaves, and renegades already presented the Moroccans with ample opportunities for espionage. Also, the tiny town and its minute hinterland were overlooked by a corset of higher ground, allowing the Moors direct observation over most of the garrison's activities (see Letter 53).

252 A quintal was equivalent to one hundredweight (112 lbs or 50.8 kilos).

253 Charles Trelawny (see App. A). On 15 September 1682, Ambassador Ben Haddu wrote to Charles II that he had safely reached Tangier (Hopkins, Letters, 20).

254 Mohammed al-Hafiz, the deputy ambassador (see App. A).

255 See Letters 27, 28.

256 On Moroccan and British slavery in Tangier, see Aylmer, G.E., ‘Slavery under Charles II: The Mediterranean and Tangier’, English Historical Review, 114 (1999), 378388CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Starr, G.A., ‘Escape from Barbary: A seventeenth-century genre’, Huntingdon Library Quarterly, 29 (1965), 3552CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

257 Captain Francis Wheler, RN (see App. A).

258 The capture of the Golden Horse and the sinking of the Admiral of Salé had deprived Wheler and his crew of prize money. In partial compensation, they were permitted to sell some of the survivors as slaves.

259 The chronological sequence is broken here. Letter 69 clearly follows Letter 67 rather than 68.

260 Thomas Maynard (see App. A).

261 Quintal.

262 Captain Daniel Dering, RN (see App. A).

263 HMS Dover (4th rate, 48 guns).

264 Benedict Thistlethwaite (see App. A).

265 7 September 1682. The superscript ‘?2’ has been inserted by a later hand.

266 A brigantine was a two-masted sailing vessel, square rigged on the foremast and fore-and-aft rigged on the mainmast. The name ‘brigantine’ is thought to have originated from the Mediterranean ‘sea brigands’, although Moroccan and Algerian corsairs favoured oared galleys (OCSS, 68).

267 Abraham Maimarān (see App. A).

268 Asilah (variously Arzila, Arzilla, Asila), a small, fortified town on the north-western coast of Morocco, some 30 km south of Tangier.

269 The English Channel. Although the Mediterranean coastal regions of Spain, France, Italy, Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia were the principal targets of Moroccan and Algerian pirates, they also ranged along the Portuguese coast and thence into the Bay of Biscay and the Western Approaches. Lundy Island in the Bristol Channel had been occupied between 1627 and 1632 as a base for summer operations, whence they attacked Iceland in 1627 and Baltimore in south-west Ireland, in 1631.

270 Ensign John Beckford (see App. A).

271 Martin Lister-Killigrew (see App. A).

272 John Churchill (see App. A).

273 To entrap, lure, or decoy others into actions which may not be to their advantage (OED).

274 Ali Ben Abdallah Hamami (see App. A).

275 Francis Nicholson (see App. A).

276 This is possibly the first recorded attempt to establish an officially designated cook in any unit in the British Army. In the Royal Navy, sailors ate in messes of about eight men. Each served a turn, in rotation, as mess cook whose duties included collecting the day's rations (usually beer, biscuit, oatmeal, salt meat, cheese, peas, butter, and sugar) from the purser, or one of his mates, preparing the meal, putting the dish into a marked bag, and delivering it to the galley where it was boiled in a large kettle by the ship's cook. Given the close association between the army and Royal Navy in Tangier, these army cooks might have adopted similar methods (see Letter 2).

277 Kirke is probably referring to Eid al-Fitr celebrating the end of Ramadan.

278 There is a short space in the manuscript.

279 Although the recipient of Letter 79 is addressed as ‘Sir’, the signature is preceded by ‘My Lords’. Kirke was writing to Colonel George Legge, Master General of the Ordnance from 28 January 1682 (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 77; Tomlinson, Guns, 223). See App. A.

280 Francis Povey (see App. A).

281 Longer barrels normally gave greater range and accuracy, important considerations at Tangier where it was imperative to keep attackers away from the vulnerable curtain walls. The cannon mentioned were probably either demi-culverins (8–10 pounders) or culverins (18 pounders).

282 The Portuguese had constructed a u-shaped bastion, the Baluarte dos Fidalgos, adjoining the ramparts at right angles midway between Catherine Port and the Upper Castle. It was renamed Johnson's Battery, probably after Roger Johnson, major of the Earl of Peterborough's Regiment, 1661–1663/4. Resembling a caponier in both form and function, it enabled enfilading fire along the length of the ditch towards the Upper Castle and Catherine Port and supported Whitehall Fort to its front (Elbl, Portuguese Tangier, 256, 258, 266–279, 380–388; Dalton, Army Lists, I. 9, 24, 26).

283 Although cannon barrels were inter-changeable between land and sea service, their mounting carriages differed considerably. The naval variant, the ‘truck’ carriage, comprised an open, wooden box, with a small wheel at each corner, designed for running over the planking of a ship's deck. The much heavier and more cumbersome land carriage had two, large, spoked, road wheels, and a long trail that anchored the piece when firing. Mobility was provided by attaching the trail to a limber and the whole to a team of horses or oxen. Because the cannon in Johnson's Battery were permanently deployed in that station, Kirke decided that cheaper and more readily constructed truck carriages were adequate.

284 William Mathews (see App. A).

285 Edward Hughes (see App. A). See App. A, MORDAUNT, Sir John.

286 See Letter 28; App. C.

287 Kirke's characteristic display of consideration for old and injured soldiers was probably motivated by the need for a fit and healthy garrison. However, there was a growing awareness that society should provide for superannuated and maimed warriors, viz. the near-contemporary foundations of Les Invalides in Paris; Kilmainham Hospital, Dublin; and the Royal Hospital, Chelsea (Cormack, Pensioners, 10–18). See Letter 81.

288 William Smith; Henry Hordesnell; and Edward Hughes (see App. A).

289 The 1st Tangier Regiment.

290 Kirke is referring to his ‘old’ unit, the 2nd Tangier Regiment. As governor, he was transferred to the colonelcy of the 1st Tangier Regiment, 19 April 1682 (Childs, Kirke, 39–40).

291 See Letter 80.

292 A large barrel. A pipe of wine held 477 litres or 105 Imperial gallons (OED).

293 A calendared version of this letter can be found in, HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 77–78.

294 See App. A.

295 A land-waiter, or landing-waiter, was a customs official charged with examining goods brought ashore, assessing their liability for duty, and collecting moneys owed.

296 Kirke's recommendations were accepted and acted upon by the Lords of the Treasury (CTB, 1681–1685, 880).

297 Anthony Sturt (see App. A).

298 George Aylmer (see App. A).

299 Members of Moulay Ismail's Black Guard (see App. D).

300 A mufti was a scholar specializing in the interpretation of Sharia Law.

301 Ahmed Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Tetuan (see App. A).

302 Kirke's opinions and the suggestion that he be allowed to brief any future ambassador about the complexities of the local politico-military situation, may have encouraged the anti-Tangier lobby in Whitehall. It is impossible to assess precisely the adverse political impact of the governor's interpretation of events but, when added to Moulay Ismail's refusal to ratify the Treaty of Meknès and the harsh usage of his own returning ambassador, it probably hardened attitudes in favour of abandonment, which would not have been Kirke's intention.

303 Mohammed al-Hafiz (see App. A).

304 In Spanish, a ‘tagarino/a’ was a Moor who lived among Christians.

305 In Spanish, ‘aprecio’ means valuable, esteemed, or precious.

306 Estepona, in the district of Málaga, lies 30 km south-west of Marbella.

307 Although Samuel Martin, a former naval purser, had been consul between 1672 and 1676 at an annual salary of £100, at this date there was no permanent English official in Algiers. During 1682, Admiral Arthur Herbert dispatched Captain John Neville, RN, previously commander of HMY Anne, to serve in a temporary capacity until the arrival of Sir Paul Rycaut (1629–1700) in October 1683 (Bromley, Corsairs, 33; Playfair, Scourge, 140–141; Willes, Margaret, The Curious World of Samuel Pepys and John Evelyn (New Haven, CT, 2017), 205CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Baker, Journal, 71, 219; Pepys, Diary, X. 241; CSPD, 1674, 517–518; CTB, 1672–1675, 6; CTB, 1676–1679, 565). See App. A, NEVILLE, John.

308 Of Dutch origin, a hoy was a small, single-masted, fore-and-aft rigged, coastal sailing vessel of about 60 tons. Dutch hoys usually had two masts, each carrying a lugsail (OCSS, 269).

309 See Letter 66.

310 Francis Povey (see App. A).

311 Before 1678, John Tinker, a fireworker in the Ordnance Office at the Tower of London, designed a hand-held, grenade thrower. A flintlock was attached to a very short, stubby barrel, sufficiently wide to accept a hand grenade, and the whole was mounted on an attenuated stock. The munition was loaded with the fuse pointing towards the breech so that it was ignited by the firing of the propellant charge. It was fired from the hip. Although expensive, each costing £5 10s, fifty were ordered in 1685 (Pollard's History of Firearms, ed. Claude Blair (London, 1983), 92; Cleaveland, F.D., Notes on the Early History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery (Woolwich, 1892), 49)Google Scholar.

312 Johannes Ewald Tessin, who was either 75 or 76 years of age (Childs, Kirke, 84). See App. A.

313 Nathaniel Lodington (see App. A).

314 This rumour was partially correct. Captain Edward Griffith did sell his company to Edward Shirley, who was commissioned on 6 January 1683, but Griffith had resumed command by the time the battalion returned to England in 1684 (see Letter 46; App. A, GRIFFITH, Edward; SHIRLEY, Edward).

315 Maurice Annesley. This purchase was completed, Annesley selling to Robert Purcell, 1 March 1683 (see App. A, ANNESLEY, Maurice; PURCELL, Robert; ROCHE, Maurice).

316 The inefficiences of the purchase system succinctly summarized.

317 The establishment of 10 October 1661 had allowed three gunsmiths for the infantry and one for the cavalry. The latter post was retrenched in 1668 (see App. C).

318 Calendared at HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 79.

319 The quarry was situated at the little settlement of Whitby, 1 km west of Tangier (Routh, Tangier, 346).

320 According to the Tangier municipal charter of 1668, all criminal cases in which the accused was a civilian and trial by jury was required were heard at a Court of Quarter Sessions. If the defendant belonged to the armed forces, then he appeared before a court martial. The mayor, aldermen, and recorder were appointed JPs and conducted the Quarter Sessions, the mayor, recorder, and any three aldermen constituting a quorum. The JPs also determined lesser offences at petty sessions. Initially, the royal appointment in December 1682 of a Court of Oyer and Terminer, presided over by a royally appointed judge and thus hierarchically superior to the Quarter Sessions, caused some confusion. Kirke hoped that the new court would strengthen his authority in maintaining discipline both within the garrison and the civilian population at a time when morale was crumbling and indiscipline and criminality increasing. To his chagrin, it soon became clear that the Court of Oyer and Terminer was a special commission for one session only. Trials under its jurisdiction were conducted on 19 and 27 December 1682 (Routh, Tangier, 118–119, 276–278).

321 Tangier's charter established a weekly Court of Record to hear civil cases. The mayor and recorder, or any three or more aldermen, adjudicated (Routh, Tangier, 118).

322 i.e. the trial jury.

323 Moulay Ismail attacked his rebellious nephew, Ahmed ibn Muhriz, in the Sus region during the latter part of 1682. Three major battles were fought during 1683, mostly around the city of Tarundant, before a ceasefire was agreed in November (Mercer, 136–138). See App. A.

324 Counterweight.

325 Francis Povey (see Letter 79; App. A).

326 Thomas Lawrence (see App. A).

327 See App. A.

328 Kirke was well-informed. During the 1670s, French merchant shipping had been much harassed and molested by corsairs from Sallee and Algiers. Government response, however, was ineffectual: instead of deploying sufficient force to overawe the pirates, individual cruisers were dispatched to patrol the western Mediterranean and North African coasts. This policy was reconsidered following particularly heavy depredations in 1680 and two squadrons under the marquis de Château-Renault and Lieutenant General Abraham DuQuesne, marquis de Bouchet (c.1610–1688), blockaded Sallee. Both sides then sought a diplomatic solution. Captain Joseph-Antoine Lèfebvre de la Barre (1622–1688) travelled to Alcazar to begin talks with the alcaid, Omar Ben Haddu Hamami. The negotiations proceeded smoothly and a truce was signed on 1 July 1681 followed by a treaty on 13 July, which was subject to ratification by Lious XIV and Moulay Ismail. On 21 September 1681, three Moroccan diplomats – al-Hajj Mohammed Temim Attitouani, sometime governor of Sallee and current pasha of Tetuan; al-Hajj Ali Manino, alcaid of Sallee; and al-Hajj Abd el-Qader, accompanied by seven or eight staff – boarded Barre's vessels at Tahaddert and set out for Paris to conclude the necessary ratification. They reached Brest on 17 October and Paris on 30 December and were received by Louis XIV at St Germain-en-Laye, 4 January 1682. Following discussions with Louis's ministers, Colbert de Croissy and Seignelay, a draft peace treaty was agreed and initialled, 29 January 1682.

Temim held his audience of leave with Louis on 10 February 1682 and departed from Paris ten days later. His party reached Tetuan on 12 April. Very soon afterwards, the Baron de Saint-Amand, a captain in the French navy, was sent by Louis XIV as ambassador to the Moroccan court in Meknès to follow up these talks and finalize the treaty with Moulay Ismail. Saint-Amand was instructed to obtain the best concessions for French traders; arrange joint action against the Turks in Algeria; free French slaves; bring back several books from Fez; and impress upon the sultan the unimaginable splendour and power of Louis XIV. An ageing man and less than enthusiastic about his task, Saint-Amand's prospective negotiating stance was heavily compromised when a French squadron, consisting of 11 warships and 7 ‘bomb galiots’ under DuQuesne, bombarded Algiers in August 1682. The Dey of Algiers promptly concluded peace with Morocco enabling him to turn his full attention on the French. Saint-Amand was accordingly instructed not to press for a Franco-Moroccan campaign against Algiers. He reached Tetuan in October and, after some delay, went to Sallee. Following suitable entertainment, the French delegation left for the south on 24 November eventually arriving at Moulay Ismail's army camp in the Atlas Mountains on 10 December. The sultan promptly disowned the terms negotiated by Temim in Paris but was prepared to discuss proposals for a maritime treaty. Little progress was made, however, and the talks finally stalled, as was usually the case, over the question of the redemption of slaves. Saint-Amand departed from camp on 14 December 1682 and entered Paris in April 1683. His experiences were typical of nearly all European diplomats who tried to negotiate maritime treaties with Morocco because Moulay Ismail had little control over the semi-independent port of Sallee. DuQuesne bombarded Algiers again in 1683 causing so much damage to the city and the Algerian fleet that, in the following year, the dey agreed a peace for one hundred years: notwithstanding, Algiers required further chastisement in 1688 (Baron de, Saint-Amand, Voyage de Monsieur le Baron de St. Amant, Capitaine du Vaisseau, Ambassadeur du Roy Tres-Chrêtien vers le Roy de Maroc, par un Officier de Marine (Lyons, 1698); Tolan, J., Veinstein, G., and Laurens, Henry, Europe and the Islamic World (Princeton, 2013), 203204Google Scholar; Playfair, Scourge, 142–143; Caillé, Jacques, ‘Ambassades et missions marocains en France’, Hespéris Tamuda, 1 (1960), 4548Google Scholar). See Letter 5; App. A, CHÂTEAU-RENAULT, François.

329 Watchmen.

330 1682/3.

331 Colonel George Legge had been created Baron Dartmouth on 2 December 1682 (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 79).

332 Thomas Baker (see App. A).

333 usable.

334 redoubtable.

335 Christian slaves who apostatized were no longer candidates for rescue and repatriation.

336 There is a two-word space in the manuscript.

337 Saint-Amand (see Letter 103).

338 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.

339 There is a blank space in the manuscript.

340 See Letter 130.

341 Capts William Mathews and Henry Trelawny (see App. A).

342 Quoin.

343 There is a blank space in the manuscript. The missing date was before 23 January 1683.

344 Bonan (see App. A).

345 Henry Radman (see App. A).

346 Kirke's instructions to Nicholson are printed in, Tangier Texts, 227–228.

347 Kirke naively assumed that Alcaid Ahmed Mohammed Attar Ben Haddu valued so highly the reputation he had acquired in England that it ranked above his political relationship with Moulay Ismail (see Letters 27, 110; App. A, BEN HADDU, Ahmed Mohammed Attar; LUCAS, al-Hajj Mohammed; ROWLAND, Jonas).

348 Although this letter is undated, it was probably written between 25 January and 8 February 1683.

349 A letter to the same effect was sent to Lord Dartmouth on 8 February 1683 (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 79).

350 This was a small panel appointed by the Tangier Committee to investigate Kirke's immediate concerns about the state of the fabric. A separate commission, comprising Henry Sheres, surveyor general of the mole and fortifications; Colonel Charles Trelawny; Lieutenant Colonel Marmaduke Boynton; Major Martin Beckman; Captain John Giles; Chief Eng. Johannes Ewald Tessin; and Thomas Phillips, was already undertaking the much larger task of assessing the works and expenditure required to make Tangier both viable and defensible. It reported on 2 October 1683 (CO 279/32, fos 157–164; Davis, Queen's, I. 306–318; Routh, Tangier, 254–255; Childs, Army of Charles II, 150). See App. A.

351 Devil's Drop.

352 HMS Dartmouth (5th rate, 36 guns), commanded, from 11 April 1682, by Captain George St Lo, RN (see App. A).

353 HMS Turkish Tyger or Tyger Prize (see Letter 37).

354 HMS Sapphire (5th rate, 32 guns), commanded by Captain Anthony Hastings, RN (see App. A).

355 Calendared at HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 80.

356 i.e. the timber platforms on which the gun carriages were mounted.

357 Sir John Berry and Sir John Wyborne (see App. A).

358 See Letter 93; App. A.

359 Maurice Roche (see Letter 46; App. A).

360 William Davis (see App. A).

361 Thomas Lucy (see App. A).

362 Edward Hastings (see App. A).

363 Ensign Gordon (see App. A).

364 Zachariah Tiffin (see App. A).

365 John Hope (see App. A).

366 Thomas Tollemache (see App. A).

367 i.e. to sell his commission. Commissioned officers were principally distinguished from other ranks by their uniforms’ superior quality material and more elaborate decoration. In addition, captains carried a half-pike and wore a gilt gorget; lieutenants a partizan and a gorget of sanguined steel studded with gilt; while ensigns bore the company colours and/or a half pike and displayed a gorget of silver plate. John Hope was appointed town major and retained his place in the 2nd Foot Guards (Walton, 381; Childs, Army of Charles II, 59–60). See App. A, HOPE, John.

368 Roger Elliott (see App. A).

369 Captain Henry Priestman, RN (see App. A).

370 HMS Reserve (4th rate, 48 guns).

371 Bonan (see App. A).

372 Henry Hordesnell (see App. A).

373 Calendared at HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 80.

374 Roger Pope (see App. A).

375 Mohammed al-Hafiz (see App. A).

376 Omar Ben Haddu Hamami (see App. A).

377 Printed in, Tangier Texts, 237–241.

378 Ensign Samuel Atkins (see App. A).

379 A felucca was a small, coastal trading vessel, common throughout the Mediterranean, Nile Valley, and Red Sea. Smaller versions were propelled by six or eight pairs of oars but the larger carried two or three masts, lateen rigged (OCSS, 203).

380 A bushel was a volumetric measure, chiefly used for grain, equivalent to 8 imperial gallons.

381 See App. A.

382 Mohammed al-Hafiz (see App. A). Both letters are printed in, Tangier Texts, 233–241.

383 Letter 124, dated 22 March, should follow Letters 125 and 126, both dated 21 March.

384 Francis Emms (see App. A).

385 Moulay Ismail's letter to Charles II; Moulay Ismail's letter to Kirke; Ahmed Ben Haddu Hamami, alcaid of Tetuan's, letter to Kirke to the same effect; and Ben Haddu Hamami's letter to Charles II apologizing for the tone of Moulay Ismail's communication, are printed in, Tangier Texts, 231–244.

386 William Smith (see App. A).

387 This regulation was not enforced. Kirke often used extravagant language and was well known for uttering draconian, but entirely empty, threats (Childs, Kirke, 50–62).

388 Thomas Hyde (see App. A).

389 See App. A.

390 The Court Merchant, established in 1668, sat every day except Sundays and holy days. The bench, comprising ‘one person learned in the civil laws’, four merchants, and a registrar, was elected annually by the mayor, aldermen, and common council. It heard cases relating to commerce, trade, currency, contracts, payments, the chartering of shipping, freightage, sailors’ wages, and ‘all other mercantile or maritime cases’ (Routh, Tangier, 119).

391 Henry Sheres (see App. A).

392 John Giles (see App. A).

393 Robert Cuthbert (see App. A).

394 John Erlisman (see App. A).

395 John Strode (see App. A).

396 Charles Johnson (see App. A).

397 A word, probably ‘pleasure’, has been omitted by the copyist.

398 Francis de la Rue (see App. A).

399 Alexander MacKenny (see App. A).

400 John Preston (see App. A).

401 In England, if one commissioned officer killed another, the undetermined relationship between the various codes of military discipline, by which the peacetime standing army was regulated, and the common law resulted in a lack of clarity about how, and under what jurisdiction, a prosecution might be conducted. Process was less contentious in Tangier where the garrison was subject to martial law according to the ‘Laws and Ordinances of War Established for the Better Governing of His Majesty's Forces in the Kingdoms of Suz, Fez, and Morocco’, drawn up for the earl of Peterborough in 1661. Under this authority, such offences were tried before a specially convened court martial. Notwithstanding, Kirke was evidently cautious about the precise legal status of the ‘Laws and Ordinances’ and had no wish to act ultra vires. He probably reasoned that if the case was referred for trial at the Quarter Sessions, or the newly constituted Court of Oyer and Terminer, he would be erring on the side of prudence and his decision would thereby be less liable to subsequent criticism and/or appeal. Kirke often acted timorously and, like all governors of Tangier, was acutely conscious of how his actions and decisions would be interpreted and regarded in Whitehall (CO 279/1, fos 99–110; Childs, Army of Charles II, 75–89, 254).

402 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.

403 A tightening of the financial latitude which the Tangier Committee had allowed previous governors was badly needed. In 1663, Pepys noted that Teviot simply presented his unaudited accounts and claims for moneys supposedly expended in the public service. Lacking means of corroboration, the committee unquestioningly nodded them through (Pepys, Diary, IV. 269–70, 326–7; V. 153; Routh, Tangier, 33–5).

404 See Letter 109.

405 Had the Tangier Committee enforced this point – the issue remained unresolved when the colony was evacuated in 1684 – then it would have substantially constrained the governor's authority. The principal motivation behind this implied restriction was the fact that army and Ordnance Office commissions were freehold properties: office holders could only be deprived by the king, usually on receipt of acceptable compensation. Kirke was no more partisan and partial than any other major public figure in favouring protégés while looking to disadvantage rival clientage networks and interests (Childs, Kirke, 12–14, 84–85, 113–137).

406 i.e. some omissions.

407 Charles II had been crowned in Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661.

408 See Letter 109.

409 According to the established rules, Dumbarton's officers took precedence because their regiment was the oldest, and thus most senior, within the garrison. The absent grenadier captain was Robert Hodges (see App. A).

410 William Mathews of the 1st Tangier Regiment (see App. A).

411 Reference to the increasingly frequent practice of temporarily detaching all available grenadier companies from their parent regiments to form an ad hoc grenadier battalion.

412 The colonel was, and remains, responsible for training his own regiment or battalion, although this duty was usually delegated to the major, the pivotal officer in a 17th-century unit. In 1679, the Scottish Army had adopted as its official drill manual, An Abridgement of English Military Discipline (London, 1675). However, this publication was not so widely espoused within the English Army until the publication of the 1685 edition, which incorporated updates derived from the Sedgemoor campaign. Nevertheless, it was not incumbent upon field officers to follow the Abridgement, although most complied (Childs, Army of William III, 78).

413 The rules of regimental seniority dealt with this point only by implication. Kirke's sensible solution was based upon the regulations of 20 July 1678, which stated that when soldiers from different regiments found themselves in a ‘commanded party’ – and such was the definition of Kirke's demi-battalion of grenadiers – led by officers from more than one regiment, then officers ranked according to the dates of their commissions, not the rungs occupied by their parent units on the ladder of regimental precedence. The proposal from the Royal Scots that a lieutenant from a senior regiment might command a captain from a junior would have undermined the basis of military discipline (WO 26/4, p. 396; SP 29/260, fo. 21; SP 29/335, fo. 229; Walton, 441–445).

414 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.

415 i.e. not yet convincingly challenged.

416 Francis Herne (see App. A).

417 See Letters 93 and 116; App. A.

418 Kirke, who had prospered through merit, opportunity, and good luck, rather than purchase, favoured only experienced and diligent officers. He was equally keen that new appointees should be, or become, clients thus contributing to his base of interest, influence, and patronage. However, despite the assurances that Kirke had received about his right to dismiss officers who had overstayed their furloughs in England, Maurice Roche's field commission was not confirmed in Whitehall while Annesley's sale to Robert Purcell was approved. See App. A, ANNESLEY, Maurice; PURCELL, Robert; ROCHE, Maurice.

419 Morgan Read (see App. A).

420 Frederick Bacher (see App. A).

421 For an overall account of the garrison hospital in Tangier, see Arni, Hospital Care, 9–31.

422 James Hunter (see App. A).

423 John Tinker (see Letter 92).

424 Untraced.

425 Robert Cuthbert (see App. A).

426 Hamud el Garable, or Grable. Untraced.

427 Henry Rowe (see App. A).

428 Lord Dartmouth's orders for the evacuation and destruction of Tangier were dated 2 July 1683 (HMC, Dartmouth MSS, I. 83–85).

429 John Hope (see App. A).

430 Thomas Tollemache (see App. A).

431 William, 1st earl of Craven (1608–1697), colonel of the 2nd Foot Guards.

432 Captain John Neville (see App. A).

433 Charles Robinson (see App. A).

434 John Avory (see App. A).

435 Ensign Gordon (see App. A).

436 Underlying Kirke's actions was the unwritten assumption that, although the governor held absolute, local authority over officers in the two garrison regiments, he had to defer to London all decisions concerning commissioned malefactors in the Royal Scots, a unit of the English standing army, and the King's Battalion, officers of which belonged to the permanent English establishment (see App. C).

437 William Smith (see App. A).

438 Frederick Bacher (see App. A).

439 Solomon Pariente (see App. A).

440 See Letter 128.

441 Cloudesley Shovell (see App. A).

442 Major Zachariah Tiffin (see App. A).

443 James Gorman (see App. A).

444 Lieutenant Colonel Marmaduke Boynton (see App. A).

445 Henry Hordesnell (see App. A).

446 Lieutenant John Hope (see App. A).

447 Major Sir James Lesley (see App. A).

448 Governor William O'Brien, 2nd earl of Inchiquin (see App. A).

449 i.e. articles 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the above ‘answer’ were cancelled.

450 Thomas Wilson (see App. A).

451 Thomas Fowler (see App. A).

452 prices.

453 Matthew Aylmer (see App. A).

454 HMS English Tyger (5th rate, 46 guns).

455 Henry Hordesnell (see App. A).

456 Possibly William Farrer (c.1656–1737) of Biddenham, Bedfordshire.

457 Richard Thurloe (see App. A).

458 A small, square-rigged ship with an overhanging stern (OCSS, 428).

459 Master, i.e. Moulay Ismail.

460 HMS Happy Return (4th rate, 54 guns).

461 Captain George St. Lo, RN (see App. A).

462 There is no closing to this letter.

463 Tagadirt, now a district of Agadir.

464 Captain Gifford, master of the merchantman, Percy. This was not Captain Sir William Gifford, RN (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 101–102). See App. A.

465 Safi on the Atlantic coast of Morocco.

466 Pepys gives a slightly different version of this story, although the thrust is similar. Captain Gifford estimated that the Percy, of which he owned a half share – the other 50% belonged to two merchants in Sallee – was worth 1,200 Spanish dollars. After consulting Admiral Herbert, Kirke decided that Gifford might be given a passport for one year at a fee of 300 dollars. Rather than pay in cash, Gifford offered Kirke a quarter share in the vessel without any reference to the co-owners in Sallee. This was accepted, Kirke handling the business through a third party (Pepys, Tangier Papers, 101–102).

467 Probably, the fanega, or Spanish bushel, a measure of dry capacity used in the Iberian grain trade. Its volume varied according to region but, in Castile, it was equivalent to about 55 litres.

468 Thomas St John (see App. A).

469 Probably Lieutenant John Martin of the 2nd Tangier Regiment (see App. A).

470 Massa lies to the south of Santa Cruz, modern Agadir. This stretch of coast is named after the River Massa, which rises in the Atlas Mountains.

471 Massa.

472 Captain Anthony Hastings, RN (see App. A).

473 A decked, trading vessel with a long, sharp prow and rigged with lateen sails on two or three masts. It was often used to convey relief crews to oared galleys (OED; OCSS, 510).

474 Joseph Maimarān (see App. A).

475 Almocadens.

476 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.

477 Captain Sir William Gifford, RN (see App. A).

478 Captain George St Lo, RN (see App. A).

479 The fanega, or Spanish bushel.

480 Ahmed ibn Muhriz. See App. A.