Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

New Dates from Submerged Late Pleistocene Sediments in the Southern Sea of Galilee, Israel

  • D Nadel (a1), S Belitzky (a2), E Boaretto (a3), I Carmi, J Heinemeier (a4), E Werker (a5) and S Marco (a6)...

Abstract

Unusual low water levels in the Sea of Galilee (Dead Sea Fault, Israel) have caused the recent exposure of submerged Late Pleistocene prehistoric sites and lacustrine sediments along the southern shores of the lake. The Ohalo II site is a large fisher-hunter-gatherers camp with in-situ brush hut floors, hearths, and a human grave. The site is radiometrically dated by 25 charcoal dates to 19,430 BP (average, uncalibrated). The archaeological remains include quantities of excellently preserved organic remains. These would not have been preserved without a rapid rise of lake level immediately after the occupation, covering the remains with silts and sand. Recently a concentration of eight tree trunks were found about 1.5 km south of Ohalo II, of which five trunks were identified as Salix species and dated as a single accumulation at about 16,100 BP. The trunks, too, had to be submerged quickly together to ensure excellent preservation. The camp and the trunks were found at −212/−213 m, almost 4 m below modern high water levels. We suggest that the finds represent two separate episodes of deposition during low lake levels, almost 3,000 radiocarbon years apart, each followed by an abrupt water rise. It is possible that climatic changes caused the observed fluctuations, though earthquakes (blocking or lowering the Jordan outlet, for example) cannot be ruled out.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      New Dates from Submerged Late Pleistocene Sediments in the Southern Sea of Galilee, Israel
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      New Dates from Submerged Late Pleistocene Sediments in the Southern Sea of Galilee, Israel
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      New Dates from Submerged Late Pleistocene Sediments in the Southern Sea of Galilee, Israel
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bard, E, Rostek, F, Turon, JL, Gendreau, S. 2000. Hydrological impact of Heinrich events in the subtropical northeast Atlantic. Science 289:1321–24.
Bar-Mathews, M, Ayalon, A, Kaufman, A. 1997. Late Quaternary paleoclimate in the eastern Mediterranean region from stable isotope analysis of speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel. Quaternary Research 47:155–68.
Bar-Mathews, M, Ayalon, A, Kaufman, A, Wasserburg, GJ. 1999. The eastern Mediterranean paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq Cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166:8595.
Bar-Yosef, O, Nadel, D. 1988. Ohalo—a prehistoric site in the Sea of Galilee. Mitekufat Haeven, Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 21:8794.
Begin, ZB, Ehrlich, A, Nathan, Y. 1974. Lake Lisan, the Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea. Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Geological Survey, Bulletin nr 63, Jerusalem.
Ben-Arieh, Y. 1965. The shift of the outlet of the Jordan at the southern shore of Lake Tiberias. Palestine Exploration Quarterly: 5465.
Ben-Avraham, Z, Ten Brink, U, Bell, R, Reznikov, M. 1996. Gravity field over the Sea of Galilee: evidence for a composite basin along a transform fault. Journal of Geophysical Research 101(B1):533–44.
Bottema, S, van Zeist, W. 1981. Palynological evidence for the climatic history of the Near East 50,000–6,000 BP. In: Cauvin, J, Sanlaville, P, editors. Prehistoire du Levant. Paris: CNRS. p 111–32.
Garfunkel, Z. 1981. Internal structure of the Dead Sea transform (rift) in relation to plate kinematics. Tectonophysics 80:80108.
Horowitz, A. 1978. The Quaternary evolution of the Jordan Valley: In: Serruya, C, editor. Lake Kinneret, monografiae biologicae 32:3343.
Horowitz, A. 1979. The Quaternary of Israel. New York: Academic Press.
Kislev, ME, Nadel, D, Carmi, I. 1992. Epipalaeolithic (19,000 BP) cereal and fruit diet at Ohalo II, Sea of Galilee, Israel. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 73:161–6.
Kitagawa, H, van der Plicht, J. 1998. Atmospheric radiocarbon calibration to 45,000 BP: late glacial fluctuations and cosmogenic isotope production. Science 279:1187–90.
Marchitto, TM, Curry, WB, Oppo, DW. 1998. Millennial–scale changes in North Atlantic circulation since the last glaciation. Nature 393:557–61.
Marco, S, Rockwell, T, Heimann, A, Agnon, A, Ellenblum, R. 2000. Historical earthquakes deformations revealed by 3-D trenching on Dead Sea Transform. In: Okumura, K, Takada, K, Goto, H, editors. Active fault research for the new millennium. Proceedings of the Hokudan International Symposium and Scholl on Active Faulting. Hokudan Co. Ltd. p 261–3.
Marcus, E, Slager, J. 1985. The sedimentary-magmatic sequence of the Zemah–1 well (Jordan–Dead Sea Rift, Israel) and its emplacement in time and space. Israel Journal of Earth Science 34:110.
McCabe, AM, Clark, PU. 1998. Ice–sheet variability around the North Atlantic Ocean during the last deglaciation. Nature 392:373–7.
Nadel, D. 1993. Submerged archaeological sites on the shores of Lake Kinneret, Israel. 'Atiqot (English Series) XXII:112.
Nadel, D. 1996. The organization of space in a fisher-hunter-gatherers camp at Ohalo II, Israel. In: Otte, M, editor. Nature et Culture, Colloque de Liege. Liege: E.R.A.U.L. 68. p 373–88.
Nadel, D, Hershkovitz, I. 1991. New subsistence data and human remains from the earliest Levantine Epipalaeolithic. Current Anthropology 32(5):631–5.
Nadel, D, Danin, A, Werker, E, Schick, T, Kislev, ME, Stewart, K. 1994. 19,000-years-old twisted fibers from Ohalo II. Current Anthropology 35(4):451–8.
Nadel, D, Carmi, I, Segal, D. 1995. Radiocarbon dating of Ohalo II: archaeological and methodological implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 22(6):811–22.
Nadel, D, Werker, E. 1999. The oldest ever brush hut plant remains from Ohalo II, Jordan Valley, Israel (19,000 BP). Antiquity 73 (282):755–64.
Neev, D, Emery, KO. 1967. The Dead Sea. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Israel 41. Jerusalem.
Neftel, A, Oeschger, H, Staffelbach, T, Stauffer, B. 1988. CO2 record in the Byrd ice core 50,000–5,000 BP. Nature 331:609–11.
Nun, M. 1991. The Sea of Galilee. Water levels, past and present. Kibbutz Ein Gev: Tourist Department and Kinnereth Sailing Co.
Shroder, JF, Bishop, M P, Kornwell, KJ, Inbar, M. 1999. Catastrophic geomorphic processes and Bethsaida archaeology, Israel. In: Arav, R, Freund, RA, editors. Bethsaida, a city by the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. Volume 2. Truman State University Press.
Simchoni, O. 1997. Reconstruction of the landscape and human economy 19,000 BP in the Upper Jordan Valley by the botanical remains found at Ohalo II. [Unpublished PhD Thesis, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan]. In Hebrew.
Weinstein-Evron, M. 1993. Palaeoecological reconstructions of the Upper Palaeolithic in the Levant. In: Pavuk, J, editor. Actes du XIIe Congres International des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques. Bratislava. p 259–70.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed