1Dorgan, JF, Schatzkin, A. Antioxidant micronutrients in cancer prevention. Nutr. Cancer 1991; 5: 43–68.
2Machlin, LJ, Bendich, A. Free radical tissue damage: protective role of antioxidant nutrients. FASEB J. 1987; 1: 441–5.
3Blomhoff, R, Blumhoff, R. Overview of vitamin A metabolism and function. Vitamin A in Health and Disease. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, 1994; 1–35.
4Mirvish, SS. Effects of vitamins C and E on N-nitroso compound formation, carcinogenesis, and cancer. Cancer 1986; 58: 1842–50.
5Kelley, DS, Bendich, A. Essential nutrients and immunologic functions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 63: 994S–6S.
6Patterson, RE, White, E, Kristal, AR, Neuhouser, ML, Potter, JD. Vitamin supplements and cancer risk: the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 786–802.
7Garland, M, Willett, WC, Manson, JE, Hunter, DJ. Antioxidant micronutrients and breast cancer. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1993; 12: 400–11.
8Hunter, DJ, Willett, WC. Diet, body size, and breast cancer. Epidemiol. Rev. 1993; 15: 110–32.
9Hunter, DJ, Manson, JE, Colditz, GA, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B, Hennekens, CH, Speizer, FE, Willett, WC. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C, E, and A and the risk of breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993; 329: 234–40.
10Rohan, TE, Howe, GR, Friedenreich, CM, Jain, M, Miller, AB. Dietary fiber, vitamins A, C, and E, and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 1993; 4: 29–37.
11Kushi, LH, Fee, RM, Sellers, TA, Zheng, W, Folsom, AR. Intake of vitamins A, C, E and postmenopausal breast cancer. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1996; 144: 165–74.
12Slesinski, MJ, Subar, AF, Kahle, LL. Trends in use of vitamin and mineral supplements in the U.S.. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1995; 95: 921–3.
13 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Economic Characterization of the Dietary Supplement Industry Final Report [Online]. Available at http://vm.dfsan.fda.gov/~comm. March 1999.
14Mayberry, RM. Age-specific patterns of association between breast cancer and risk factors in black women, ages 20 to 39 and 40 to 54. Ann. Epidemiol. 1994; 4: 205–13.
15Mayberry, RM, Stoddard-Wright, C. Breast cancer risk factors among black women and white women: similarities and differences. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992; 136: 1445–56.
16Austin, H, Cole, P, Wynder, E. Breast cancer in black American women. Int. J. Cancer 1979; 24: 541–4.
17Schatzkin, A, Palmer, JR, Rosenberg, L, Helmrich, SP, Miller, DR, Kaufman, DW, Lesko, SM, Shapiro, S. Risk factors for breast cancer in black women. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 1987; 78: 213–7.
18Brinton, LA, Benichou, J, Gammon, MD, Brogan, DR, Coates, R, Schoenberg, JB. Ethnicity and variation in breast cancer incidence. Int. J. Cancer 1997; 73: 349–55.
19Palmer, JR, Rosenberg, L, Rao, RS, Strom, BL, Warshauer, ME, Harlap, S, Zauber, A, Shapiro, S. Oral contraceptive use and breast cancer risk among African–American women. Cancer Causes Control 1995; 6: 321–31.
20Newman, B, Moorman, PG, Millikan, R, et al. The Carolina Breast Cancer Study: integrating population-based epidemiology and molecular biology. Breast Cancer Res. Treatment 1995; 35: 51–60.
21Weinberg, CR, Sandler, DP. Randomized recruitment in case–control studies. Am. J. Epidemiol.. 1991; 134: 421–32.
22Moorman, PG, Newman, B, Millikan, RC, Tse, C-KJ, Sandler, DP. Participation rates in a case–control study: the impact of age, race, and race of interviewer. Ann. Epidemiol. 1999; 9: 188–95.
23Zhang, S, Hunter, DJ, Hankinson, SE, et al. A prospective study of folate intake and the risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1999; 281: 1632–7.
24McClelland, JW, Demark-Wahnefried, W, Mustian, RD, Cowan, AT, Campbell, MK. Fruit and vegetable consumption of rural African Americans: baseline survey results of the Black Churches United for Better Health 5 a day project. Nutr. Cancer 1998; 30: 148–57.
25Popkin, BM, Siega-Riz, AM, Haines, PS. A comparison of dietary trends among racial and socioeconomic groups in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 1996; 335: 716–20.
26Popkin, BM, Siega-Riz, AM, Haines, PS. Correction and revision of conclusions – dietary trends in the United States. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 337: 1846–8.
27Pryor, WA, Stahl, W, Rock, CL. Beta carotene: from biochemistry to clinical trials. Nutr. Rev. 2000; 58: 39–53.
28Wang, X-D, Russell, RM. Procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic effects of β-carotene. Nutr. Rev. 1999; 57: 263–72.
29Slesinski, MJ, Subar, AF, Kahle, LL. Dietary intake of fat, fiber and other nutrients is related to the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in the United States: the 1992 National Health Interview Survey. J. Nutr. 1996; 126: 3001–8.
30Patterson, RE, Neuhouser, ML, White, E, Hunt, JR, Kristal, AR. Cancer-related behavior of vitamin supplement users. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 1998; 7: 79–81.
31DeMarini, DM. Dietary interventions of human carcinogenesis. Mutation Res. 1998; 457–65.