1.Holick, MF & Chen, TC (2008) Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1080S–1086S.
2.Allgrove, J (2004) Is nutritional rickets returning? Arch Dis Child 89, 699–701.
3.Al Faraj, S & Al Mutairi, K (2003) Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine 28, 117–119.
4.Plotnikoff, GA & Quigley, JM (2003) Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculosketal pain. Mayo Clin Proc 78, 1463–1470.
5.Blok, BH, Grant, CC, McNeil, AR & Reid, IR (2000) Characteristics of children with florid vitamin D deficient rickets in the Auckland region in 1998. NZ Med J 113, 374–376.
6.Nozza, JM & Rodda, CP (2001) Vitamin D deficiency in mothers of infants with rickets. Med J Aust 175, 253–255.
7.Robinson, PD, Hogler, W, Craig, ME, Verge, CF, Walker, JL, Piper, AC, Woodhead, HJ, Cowell, CT & Ambler, GR (2006) The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Arch Dis Child 91, 564–568.
8.Bradley, B (1999) The Penguin New Zealand Atlas for the 21st Century [Terralink NZ Ltd, editor]. Auckland: Penguin Books.
9.World Health Organization (2002) Global Solar UV Index, A Practical Guide. Geneva: WHO.
10.Rockell, JE, Green, TJ, Skeaff, CM et al. (2005) Season and ethnicity are determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in New Zealand children aged 5–14 y. J Nutr 135, 2602–2608.
11.Judkins, A & Eagleton, C (2006) Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant New Zealand women. NZ Med J 119, U2144.
12.Rockell, J, Skeaff, C, Williams, S & Green, T (2006) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of New Zealanders aged 15 years and older. Osteoporos Int 17, 1382–1389.
13.Statistics New Zealand (2006) 2006 Census of Population and Dwellings – Asian People. New Zealand: New Zealand Government.
15.Visser, M, Deeg, D & Lips, P (2003) Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the longitudinal aging study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 5766–5772.
16.Grant, WB (2002) An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the US due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer 94, 1867–1875.
17.Wang, TJ, Pencina, MJ, Booth, SL et al. (2008) Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 117, 503–511.
18.Munger, KL, Zhang, SM, O’Reilly, E, Hernán, MA, Olek, MJ, Willett, WC & Ascherio, A (2004) Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 62, 60–65.
19.Hyppönen, E, Läärä, E, Reunanen, A, Järvelin, M-R & Virtanen, SM (2001) Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 358, 1500–1503.
20.Borissova, A, Tankova, T, Kirilov, G, Dakovska, L & Kovacheva, R (2003) The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Clin Pract 57, 258–261.
21.Ministry of Health, N.Z. (2006) Asian Health Chart Book 2006. Public Health Intelligence: Monitoring Report no.4, p. 47. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
22.Von Hurst, PR, Stonehouse, W, Matthys, C, Conlon, C, Kruger, MC & Coad, J (2008) Metabolic syndrome, vitamin D and bone status in South Asian women living in Auckland, New Zealand: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind vitamin D intervention. BMC Public Health 8, 267.
23.Kim, K, Horan, M, Gendler, P & Patel, M (1991) Development and evaluation of the osteoporosis health belief scale. Res Nurs Health 14, 155–163.
24.Wu, F, Staykova, T, Horne, A et al. (2003) Efficacy of an oral 10-day course of high dose calciferol in correcting vitamin D deficiency. NZ Med J 116, U536.
25.Working Group of the Australian and New Zealand Bone and Mineral Society, Endocrine Society of Australia, and Osteoporosis Australia (2005) Vitamin D and adult bone health in Australia and New Zealand: a position statement. Med J Aust 182, 281–285.
26.Vieth, R, Chan, P-CR & MacFarlane, GD (2001) Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 288–294.
27.Pettit, FS (2007) Factors influencing sun exposure behaviours and the risk of vitamin D deficiency among Pacific and South Asian women aged 18 to 40 living in Auckland. Masters Thesis, The University of Auckland.
28.McKenzie, R, Bodeker, G, Scott, G, Slusserb, J & Lantzc, K (2006) Geographical differences in erythemally-weighted UV measured at mid-latitude USDA sites. Photochem Photobiol Sci 5, 343–352.
30.Agarwal, KS, Mughal, MZ, Upadhyay, P, Berry, JL, Mawer, EB & Puliyel, JM (2002) The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi, India. Arch Dis Child 87, 111.
34.Porojnicu, A, Robsahm, T, Dahlback, A, Berg, J, Christiani, D, Bruland, O & Moan, J (2007) Seasonal and geographical variations in lung cancer prognosis in Norway. Does vitamin D from the sun play a role? Lung Cancer 55, 263–270.
35.Andersen, R, Mølgaard, C, Skovgaard, L, Brot, C, Cashman, K, Jakobsen, J, Lamberg-Allardt, C & Ovesen, L (2008) Pakistani immigrant children and adults in Denmark have severely low vitamin D status. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 625–634.
36.Roy, DK, Berry, JL, Pye, SR, Adams, JE, Swarbrick, CM, King, Y, Silman, AJ & O’Neill, TW (2007) Vitamin D status and bone mass in UK South Asian women. Bone 40, 200–204.
37.Vieth, R, Bischoff-Ferrari, H, Boucher, BJ et al. (2007) The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 649–650.