1FAO/WHO. Nutrition and Development – A Global Assessment. International Conference on Nutrition. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, 1992.
2Hatløy, A, Torheim, LE, Oshaug, A. Food variety – a good indicator of nutritional adequacy of the diet? A case study from an urban area in Mali, West Africa. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 52: 891–8.
3Dop, MC, Milan, C, Milan, C, N'Diaye, AM. Use of the multiple-day weighed record for Senegalese children during the weaning period: a case of the ‘instrument effect’. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 59: 266S–8S.
4Ferguson, EL, Gibson, RS, Opare-Obisaw, C, Osei-Opare, F, Lamba, C, Ounpuu, S. Seasonal food consumption patterns and dietary diversity of rural preschool Ghanaian and Malawian children. Ecol. Food Nutr. 1993; 29: 219–34.
5Ferguson, EL, Gibson, RS, Opare-Obisaw, C. The relative validity of the repeated 24 h recall for estimating energy and selected nutrient intakes of rural Ghanaian children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 48: 241–52.
6Kigutha, HN. Assessment of dietary intake in rural communities in Africa: experiences in Kenya. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1168S–72S.
7FAO/WHO. World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition. International Conference on Nutrition. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization, 1992.
8FAO/WHO. Preparation and Use of Food-based Dietary Guidelines. WHO Technical Report Series. Geneva: WorldHealth Organization, 1998.
9Willett, WC, Sampson, L, Stampfer, MJ, Rosner, B, Bain, C, Witschi, J, et al. Reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1985 122: 51–65.
10Kushi, LH. Gaps in epidemiologic research methods: design considerations for studies that use food-frequency questionnaires. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994. 59: 180S–4S.
11Hebert, JR, Gupta, PC, Bhonsle, RB, Sinor, PN, Mehta, H, Mehta, FS. Development and testing of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in Gujarat, India. Public Health Nutr. 1999; 2: 39–50.
12Hebert, JR, Gupta, PC, Bhonsle, RB, Murti, PR, Mehta, H, Verghese, F, et al. Development and testing of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use in Kerela, India. Public Health Nutr. 1998; 1: 123–30.
13Sharma, S, Cade, J, Jackson, M, Mbanya, JC, Chungong, S, Forrester, T, et al. Development of food frequency questionnaires in three population samples of African origin from Cameroon, Jamaica and Caribbean migrants to the UK. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 50: 479–86.
14Hatløy, A, Hallund, J, Diarra, MM, Oshaug, O. Food variety, socioeconomic status and nutritional status in urban and rural areas in Koutiala (Mali). Public Health Nutr. 2000; 3: 57–65.
15Cassidy, CM. Walk a mile in my shoes: culturally sensitive food-habit research. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 59: 190S–7S.
16Nes, M, Andersen, LF, Solvoll, K, Sandstad, B, Hustvedt, BE, Løvø, A, et al. Accuracy of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire applied in elderly Norwegian women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992; 46: 809–21.
17Bingham, SA, Gill, C, Welch, A, Day, K, Cassidy, A, Khaw, KT, et al. Comparison of dietary assessment methods in nutritional epidemiology: weighed records v. 24 h recalls, food-frequency questionnaires and estimated-diet records. Br. J. Nutr. 1994; 72: 619–43.
18Andersen, LF. Evaluation of food frequency questionnaires used among different groups of the Norwegian population. Dissertation, Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, 1998.
19Nordeide, MB. Table de Composition d'Aliments du Mali. Annex No. 9. Rapport d'Etape Sécurité Alimentaire/Femme. Projet de Recherche SSE. Environnement et Développement au Mali. Oslo: CNRST/Université d'Oslo, 1997.
20Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, Cole, TJ, Murgatroyd, PR, Coward, WA. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991; 45: 569–81.
21Goldberg, GR, Black, AE. Assessment of the validity of reported energy intakes – review and recent developments. Scand. J. Nutr. 1998; 42: 6–9.
22FAO/WHO/UNU. Energy and Protein Requirements. Technical Report Series 724. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1985.
23SPSS, Inc. SPSS 8.0 for Windows. Chicago, IL: SPSS, Inc, 1997.
24Burema, J, van Staveren, WA, Feunekes, GIJ. Guidelines for reports on validation studies. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995; 49: 932–3.
25Bland, JM, Altman, DG. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1986; 1: 307–10.
26Oshaug, A, Diarra, M, Torheim, LE, Diallo, F, Diakité, M, Sissoko, F, et al. Etude qualitative des besoins de la population à Bafoulabé. Programme de collaboration PIDEB/INRSP/Université de Oslo, Oslo, 1997.
27Kaaks, R, Riboli, E, van Staveren, W. Calibration of dietary intake measurements in prospective cohort studies. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1995; 142: 548–56.
28Willett, WC. Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.
29Adams, AM. Seasonal variations in energy balance among agriculturalists in central Mali: compromise or adaptation? Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 49: 809–23.
30Pietinen, P, Hartman, AM, Haapa, E, Räsänen, L, Haapakoski, J, Palmgren, J, et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary assessment instruments. II. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 128: 667–76.
31Goldbohm, RA, van den Brandt, PA, Brants, HA, van't Veer, P, Al, M, Sturmans, F, et al. Validation of a dietary questionnaire used in a large-scale prospective cohort study on diet and cancer. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 48: 253–65.
32Bonifacj, C, Gerber, M, Scali, J, Daures, JP. Comparison of dietary assessment methods in a Southern French population: use of weighed records, estimated-diet records and a food-frequency questionnaire. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 51: 217–31.
33Andersen, LF, Nes, M, Lillegaard, IT, Sandstad, B, Bjørneboe, GEA, Drevon, CA. Evaluation of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a group of Norwegian adolescents. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995; 49: 543–54.
34Elmståhl, S, Riboli, E, Lindgärde, F, Gullberg, B, Saracci, R. The Malmö food study: the relative validity of a modified diet history method and an extensive food frequency questionnaire for measuring food intake. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1996; 50: 143–51.
35Salvini, S, Hunter, DJ, Sampson, L, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, et al. Food-based validation of dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1989; 18: 858–66.
36Beaton, GH. Approaches to analysis of dietary data: relationship between planned analysis and choice of methodology. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 59: 253S–61S.
37Nelson, M. The validity of dietary assessment. In: Margetts, MB, Nelson, M, eds. Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997; 241–72.
38Bingham, SA, Day, NE. Using biochemical markers to assess the validity of prospective dietary assessment methods and the effect of energy adjustment. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 65: 1130S–7S.