Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Validation and extension of a simple questionnaire to assess physical activity in pre-school children

  • Otmar Bayer (a1), Marc Jarczok (a2), Joachim Fischer (a2), Rüdiger von Kries (a1) and Freia De Bock (a2) (a3)...

Abstract

Objective

To (i) validate a recently proposed questionnaire tool for the simple assessment of physical activity (PA) in pre-school children by comparison with accelerometry and heart-rate recordings; and (ii) extend the tool by adding more questions to improve validity and to refine the classification from two to three categories (PA low, medium, high).

Setting

Baseline data of an intervention evaluation study.

Subjects

Pre-school children.

Design

Children were categorized as either physically active or non-active, based on their parents’ answers to the five-item questionnaire. Activity and heart rate were recorded for 6 d (Actiheart device; CamNtech, Cambridge, UK). Nightly sleeping periods were removed and mean accelerometry counts (MACT), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) were computed. In a second step, additional questions that improved validity were added, resulting in an extended seven-item questionnaire.

Results

For 748 (90·4 %) of the participating children aged 2·3–6·7 years, the questionnaires were filled out sufficiently for classification. Children classified as physically active showed 9·6 % higher MACT (P < 0·0003), spent more time in MVPA and insignificantly less time in SB. Using the extended questionnaire, children with PA classified as medium (reference: low) showed 11·0 % more MACT, spent 11·8 % more time in MVPA and 4·8 % less time in SB. Children with PA classified as high showed 16·9 % more MACT, spent 20·2 % more time in MVPA and 7·2 % less time in SB.

Conclusions

With validated PA questionnaires for pre-school children lacking, the proposed questionnaire might be a reasonable option to include for PA assessment in epidemiological studies where more elaborate measurements are unavailable.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Validation and extension of a simple questionnaire to assess physical activity in pre-school children
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Validation and extension of a simple questionnaire to assess physical activity in pre-school children
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Validation and extension of a simple questionnaire to assess physical activity in pre-school children
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email Otmar.Bayer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de

References

Hide All
1.Biddle, SJH, Gorely, T & Stensel, DJ (2004) Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. J Sports Sci 22, 679701.
2.Moore, LL, Nguyen, US, Rothman, KJ et al. (1995) Preschool physical activity level and change in body fatness in young children. The Framingham Children's Study. Am J Epidemiol 142, 982988.
3.Must, A & Tybor, DJ (2005) Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, Suppl. 2, S84S96.
4.Janz, KF, Kwon, S, Letuchy, EM et al. (2009) Sustained effect of early physical activity on body fat mass in older children. Am J Prev Med 37, 3540.
5.Brage, S, Wedderkopp, N, Ekelund, U et al. (2004) Features of the metabolic syndrome are associated with objectively measured physical activity and fitness in Danish children: the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Diabetes Care 27, 21412148.
6.Sääkslahti, A, Numminen, P, Varstala, V et al. (2004) Physical activity as a preventive measure for coronary heart disease risk factors in early childhood. Scand J Med Sci Sports 14, 143149.
7.Janz, K, Letuchy, E, Gilmore, JE et al. (2010) Early physical activity provides sustained bone health benefits later in childhood. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 10721078.
8.Commonwealth of Australia, Department of Health and Ageing (2010) National Australian Physical Activity Recommendations for Children 0–5 Years. http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/CB94BC879F76C211CA2577AE007F78FC/$File/PA%20Rec%200-5%20yo%20-%20Q&A.pdf
9.National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2009) Active Start: A Statement of Physical Activity Guidelines for Children Birth to Age 5 and Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines for Children 5–12, 2nd Edition. http://www.aahperd.org/naspe/standards/nationalGuidelines/PAguidelines.cfm
10.Welk, GJ, Corbin, CB & Dale, D (2000) Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S59S73.
11.Pate, RR, Almeida, MJ, McIver, KL et al. (2006) Validation and calibration of an accelerometer in preschool children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 14, 20002006.
12.Puyau, MR, Adolph, AL, Vohra, FA et al. (2004) Prediction of activity energy expenditure using accelerometers in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 16251631.
13.Freedson, P, Pober, D & Janz, KF (2005) Calibration of accelerometer output for children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 11 Suppl., S523S530.
14.Chen, KY & Bassett, DR Jr (2005) The technology of accelerometry-based activity monitors: current and future. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 11 Suppl., S490S500.
15.Freedson, PS & Miller, K (2000) Objective monitoring of physical activity using motion sensors and heart rate. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S21S29.
16.Corder, K, Brage, S, Wareham, NJ et al. (2005) Comparison of PAEE from combined and separate heart rate and movement models in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 17611767.
17.Ward, DS, Evenson, KR, Vaughn, A et al. (2005) Accelerometer use in physical activity: best practices and research recommendations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 11 Suppl., S582S588.
18.Burdette, HL, Whitaker, RC & Daniels, SR (2004) Parental report of outdoor playtime as a measure of physical activity in preschool-aged children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 158, 353357.
19.Janz, KF, Broffitt, B & Levy, SM (2005) Validation evidence for the Netherlands physical activity questionnaire for young children: the Iowa bone development study. Res Q Exerc Sport 76, 363369.
20.Corder, K, van Sluijs, EMF, Wright, A et al. (2009) Is it possible to assess free-living physical activity and energy expenditure in young people by self-report? Am J Clin Nutr 89, 862870.
21.Hagströmer, M, Bergman, P, Bourdeaudhuij, ID et al. (2008) Concurrent validity of a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) in European adolescents: The HELENA Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, Suppl. 5, S42S48.
22.Treuth, MS, Hou, N, Young, DR et al. (2005) Validity and reliability of the Fels physical activity questionnaire for children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 488495.
23.Telford, A, Salmon, J, Jolley, D et al. (2004) Reliability and validity of physical activity questionnaires for children: The Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS). Pediatr Exerc Sci 16, 6478.
24.Kohl, HW & Fulton, JCC (2000) Assessment of physical activity among children and adolescents: a review and synthesis. Prev Med 31, 5476.
25.Sallis, JF & Saelens, BE (2000) Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status, limitations, and future directions. Res Q Exerc Sport 71, 2 Suppl., S1S14.
26.Bayer, O, Bolte, G, Morlock, G et al. (2009) A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children. Public Health Nutr 12, 12421247, corrigendum 1308.
27.Brage, S, Brage, N, Franks, PW et al. (2005) Reliability and validity of the combined heart rate and movement sensor Actiheart. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 561570.
28.Trost, SG, McIver, KL & Pate, RR (2005) Conducting accelerometer-based activity assessments in field-based research. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37, 11 Suppl., S531S543.
29.Rowlands, AV, Eston, RG & Ingledew, DK (1997) Measurement of physical activity in children with particular reference to the use of heart rate and pedometry. Sports Med 24, 258272.
30.Brage, S, Brage, N, Ekelund, U et al. (2006) Effect of combined movement and heart rate monitor placement on physical activity estimates during treadmill locomotion and free-living. Eur J Appl Physiol 96, 517524.
31.Puhl, J, Greaves, K, Hoyt, M et al. (1990) Children's Activity Rating Scale (CARS): description and calibration. Res Q Exerc Sport 61, 2636.
32.De Bock, F, Menze, J, Becker, S et al. (2010) Combining accelerometry and heart rate for assessing preschoolers’ physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 42, 22372243.
33.Craig, CL, Marshall, AL, Sjöström, M et al. (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35, 13811395.
34.Kurtze, N, Rangul, V & Hustvedt, B-E (2008) Reliability and validity of the international physical activity questionnaire in the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT) population of men. BMC Med Res Methodol 8, 63.
35.Huang, YJ, Wong, SHS & Salmon, J (2009) Reliability and validity of the modified Chinese version of the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) questionnaire in assessing physical activity among Hong Kong children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 21, 339353.
36.Cavill, NA, Biddle, S & Sallis, JF (2001) Health enhancing physical activity for young people: statement of the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Conference. Pediatr Exerc Sci 13, 1225.
37.Strong, WB, Malina, RM, Blimkie, CJR et al. (2005) Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr 146, 732737.
38.Hinkley, T, Crawford, D, Salmon, J et al. (2008) Preschool children and physical activity: a review of correlates. Am J Prev Med 34, 435441.
39.Baranowski, T, Thompson, WO, DuRant, RH et al. (1993) Observations on physical activity in physical locations: age, gender, ethnicity, and month effects. Res Q Exerc Sport 64, 127133.
40.Pate, RR, McIver, K, Dowda, M et al. (2008) Directly observed physical activity levels in preschool children. J Sch Health 78, 438444.
41.Jackson, DM, Reilly, JJ, Kelly, LA et al. (2003) Objectively measured physical activity in a representative sample of 3- to 4-year-old children. Obes Res 11, 420425.
42.Grontved, A, Pedersen, GS, Andersen, LB et al. (2009) Personal characteristics and demographic factors associated with objectively measured physical activity in children attending preschool. Pediatr Exerc Sci 21, 209219.
43.Lopes, VP, Vasques, CMS, Maia, JAR et al. (2007) Habitual physical activity levels in childhood and adolescence assessed with accelerometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 47, 217222.
44.Santos, P, Guerra, S, Ribeiro, JC et al. (2003) Age and gender-related physical activity. A descriptive study in children using accelerometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 43, 8589.
45.Steele, RM, van Sluijs, EM, Sharp, SJ et al. (2010) An investigation of patterns of children's sedentary and vigorous physical activity throughout the week. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 7, 88.
46.Kurth, B-M & Rosario, AS (2007) The prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents living in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 50, 736743.
47.Hochberg, Y (1988) A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika 75, 800802.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed