1.Jackson-Leach, R & Lobstein, T (2006) Estimated burden of paediatric obesity and co-morbidities in Europe. Part 1. The increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Europe is itself increasing. Int J of Pediatr Obes 1, 26–32.
2.Lobstein, T, Baur, L & Uauy, R, for the IASO International Obesity TaskForce (2004) Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 5, 4–85.
3.British Heart Foundation, Children’s Food Campaign (2008) Protecting children from unhealthy food marketing. A British Heart Foundation and Children’s Food Campaign proposal for a statutory system to regulate non-broadcast food marketing to children. http://www.sustainweb.org/pdf/Protecting_Children_Report.pdf (accessed November 2009).
4.James, WPT, Jackson-Leach, R, Mhurchu, CN, et al. (2004) Overweight and Obesity (High Body Mass Index). Comparative Quantification of Health Risks. Geneva: WHO.
5.Peeters, A, Barendregt, JJ, Willekens, F et al. (2003) Obesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Ann Intern Med 138, 24–32.
6.Wiecha, JL, Peterson, KE, Ludwig, DS et al. (2006) When children eat what they watch: impact of television viewing on dietary intake in youth. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160, 436–442.
7.Snoek, HM, Van Strien, T, Janssens, JM et al. (2006) The effect of television viewing on adolescents’ snacking: individual differences explained by external, restrained and emotional eating. J Adolesc Health 39, 448–451.
8.Utter, J, Scragg, R & Schaaf, D (2006) Associations between television viewing and consumption of commonly advertised foods among New Zealand children and young adolescents. Public Health Nutr 9, 606–612.
9.Robinson, TN (2001) Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am 48, 1017–1025.
10.Chou, SY, Rashad, I & Grossman, M (2008) Fast-food restaurant advertising and its influence on childhood obesity. J Law Econ 51, 599–618.
11.Lobstein, T & Dibb, S (2005) Evidence of a possible link between obesogenic food advertising and child overweight. Obes Rev 6, 203–208.
12.Epstein, LH, Roemmich, JN, Robinson, JL et al. (2008) A randomized trial of the effects of reducing television viewing and computer use on body mass index in young children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163, 239–245.
13.Crespo, CJ, Smit, E, Troiano, RP et al. (2001) Television watching, energy intake, and obesity in US children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 155, 360–365.
14.Halford, JC, Gillespie, J, Brown, V et al. (2004) Effect of television advertisements for foods on food consumption in children. Appetite 42, 221–225.
15.Borzekowski, DL & Robinson, TN (2001) The 30-second effect: an experiment revealing the impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 42–46.
16.Institute of Medicine (2006) Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?. Washington DC: National Academic Press.
17.Chamberlain, LJ, Wang, Y & Robinson, TN (2006) Does children’s screen time predict requests for advertised products? Cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 160, 363–368.
18.Hastings, G, Stead, M, McDermott, L et al. (2003) Review of Research on the Effects of Food Promotion to Children. Glasgow: University of Strathclyde.
19.European Heart Network (2005) The Marketing of Unhealthy Food to Children in Europe. A Report on Phase 1 of the ‘Children, Obesity and Associated Avoidable Chronic Disease’ Project. Brussels: European Heart Network.
20.Dietz, WH Jr & Gortmaker, SL (1985) Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 75, 807–812.
21.Consumers International (1996) A Spoonful of Sugar. Television Food Advertising Aimed at Children: An International Comparative Survey. London: Consumers International.
22.Powell, LM, Szczypka, G & Chaloupka, FJ (2007) Exposure to food advertising on television among US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161, 553–560.
23.Veerman, J, Van Beek, E, Barendregt, J et al. (2009) By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity? Eur J Public Health 19, 365–369.
24.Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM et al. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1243.
25.Halford, JC, Boyland, EJ, Hughes, G et al. (2007) Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5–7-year-old children. Appetite 49, 263–267.
26.Nordiska ministerrådet (2008) Prinsessmuffins och chokladägg. En analys av livsmedelsreklam till barn. Köpenhamn: Nordiska ministerrådet.
27.Spagnoli, T, Bioletti, L, Bo, C et al. (2003) Sovrappeso e TV: aspetti di sorveglianza nutrizionale. I tipi di spot, consumi alimentari e attività fisica. Ann Ig 15, 611–620.
29.Bolton, R (1983) Modeling the impact of television food advertising on children’s diets. Curr Issues Res Advertising 6, 173–199.
30.Swinburn, BA, Jolley, D, Kremer, PJ et al. (2006) Estimating the effects of energy imbalance on changes in body weight in children. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 859–863.
31.Flegal, KM & Troiano, RP (2000) Changes in the distribution of body mass index of adults and children in the US population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 807–818.
32.Efron, B & Tibshirani, R (1994) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC.
33.Vignolo, M, Pistorio, A, Torrisi, C et al. (2004) Overweight and obesity in a group of Italian children and adolescents: prevalence estimates using different reference standards. Ital J Pediatr 30, 53–57.
34.O’Dea, J (2008) Gender, ethnicity, culture and social class influences on childhood obesity among Australian schoolchildren: implications for treatment, prevention and community education. Health Soc Care Community 16, 282–290.
36.Caraher, M, Landon, J & Dalmeny, K (2006) Television advertising and children: lessons from policy development. Public Health Nutr 9, 596–605.
37.Australian Food and Grocery Council (2009) The Responsible Children’s Marketing Initiative of the Australian Food and Beverage Industry. Barton, ACT: Australian Food and Grocery Council.
38.Council of Better Business Bureaus (2008) Changing the Landscape of Food & Beverage Advertising: The Children’s Food & Beverage Advertising Initiative in Action. Arlington, VA: Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc.
39.Department of Health (2008) Changes in Food and Drink Advertising and Promotion to Children. A Report Outlining the Nature and Balance of Food and Drink Advertising and Promotion to Children, from January 2003 to December 2007–2008. London: Department of Health.
40.Saffer, HFC (2000) The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption. J Health Econ 19, 1117–1137.
41.Swinburn, B, Sacks, G, Lobstein, T et al. (2008) The ‘Sydney Principles’ for reducing the commercial promotion of foods and beverages to children. Public Health Nutr 11, 881–886.
42.Sanigorski, A, Bell, A, Kremer, P et al. (2007) High childhood obesity in an Australian population. Obesity 15, 1908–1912.
43.Celi, F, Bini, V, De Giorgi, G et al. (2003) Epidemiology of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in three provinces of central Italy, 1993–2001: study of potential influencing variables. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 1045–1051.
44.Petersen, S, Brulin, C & Bergström, E (2003) Increasing prevalence of overweight in young schoolchildren in Umeå, Sweden, from 1986 to 2001. Acta Pædiatr 92, 848–853.
45.Van den Hurk, K, Van Dommelen, P, De Wilde, J et al. (2006) Prevalentie van overgewicht en obesitas bij jeugdigen 4–15 jaar in de periode 2002–2004. Leiden: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven.
46.The Department of Health Joint Health Surveys Unit, National Centre for Social Research, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (2002) Health Survey for England 2002, The Health of Children and Young People. London: University College.
47.The Department of Health Joint Health Surveys Unit, National Centre for Social Research, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health (2003) Health Survey for Scotland 2003, The Health of Children and Young People. London: University College.
49.Chapman, K, Nicholas, P & Supramaniam, R (2006) How much food advertising is there on Australian television? Health Promot Int 21, 172–180.
50.Australian Communications and Media Authority (2007) Children’s Viewing Patterns on Commercial, Free-to-air and Subscription Television. Report Analysing Audience and Ratings Data for 2001, 2005 and 2006. Melbourne: Australian Communications and Media Authority.
51.Nordicom (2006) Sveriges Mediebarometer 2005. Göteborg: Nordicom.
52.Stichting Kijk Onderzoek Nederland (2005) Jaarrapport 2005. Amstelveen: Stichting Kijk Onderzoek Nederland.