1United Nations, ACC/SCN. Controlling Iron Deficiency. Nutrition Policy Discussion, Paper No. 9. New York: United Nations, 1991.
2Hofvander, Y. Hematological investigations in Ethiopia with special to a high iron intake. Acta Med. Scand. 1968; 494: 11–74.
3Gebre-medhin, M, Kilander, A, Bahlquist, B, Wuhib, E. Rarity of anaemia of pregnancy in Ethiopia. Scand. J. Haematol. 1976; 16: 168–75.
4Zein, ZA, Assefa, M. The prevalence of anemia among populations living at different altitudes in north-western Ethiopia. Ethiop. Med. J. 1987; 25: 105–11.
5Esrey, SA, Adish, AA, Barr, G, Asefa, T. Characteristics and Determinants of Nutritional Status in Tigray. IDRC report. Ottawa: IDRC, 1995.
6Gebreselassie, HM. Iron supplementation and malaria infection: results from a randomized controlled field trial. PhD thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, 1997.
7Baker, SJ, DeMaeyer, EM. Nutritional anemia: its understanding and control with special to the work of the World Health Organization. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1979; 32: 368–417.
8Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Requirements of Vitamin A, Iron, Folate and Vitamin B12. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. Rome: FAO/WHO, 1988.
9Cook, JD, Skikne, BS, Baynes, RD. Iron Deficiency: The Global Perspective. Progress in Iron Research. New York: Plenum Press, 1994: 219–28.
10Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense. Ethiopia – Nutrition Survey. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 1959.
11Ministry of Health of Ethiopia, MOH/WHO. Primary Health Care Review Ethiopia. Addis Abeba: Ministry of Health, 1987.
12Foy, H, Kondi, A. Hookworm in the etiology of tropical iron deficiency anemia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1960; 54: 419–33.
13World Health Organization. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Technical Report Series no. 182. Geneva: WHO, 1959.
14Layrisse, M, Roche, M. The relationship between anemia and hookworm infection. Am. J. Hyg. 1964; 79: 279–87.
15World Health Organization. Report of the WHO/UNICEF/UNU Consultation on Indicators and Strategies for Iron Deficiency and Anemia Programmes. Geneva: WHO, 1994.
16Gibson, RS. Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
17United Nations. How to Weigh and Measure Children: Preliminary Version. New York: United Nations, 1986.
18Agren, G, Gibson, R. Food Composition for Use in Ethiopia I. Addis Abeba: Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, 1964–1975.
19World Health Organization. The Quantity and Quality of Breast Milk. Geneva: WHO, 1985.
20International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG). Measurement of Iron Status. Washington DC: The International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group, 1985.
21Powers, LW, Diagnostic Hematology: Clinical and Technical Principles. St Louis: Mosby, 1989.
22 Center for Disease Control (CDC). Epi Info version 5. Atlanta: CDC, 1994.
23 Stata Corporation. Stata version 3.1. Texas: Stata Corporation, 1991.
24Vaughan, VC, McKay, RJ, Behrman, RE, Nelson, WE. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1979: 1375–8.
25Health and Welfare Canada (HWC). Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee. Ottawa: HWC, 1990.
26Braunwald, E, Isselbacher, KJ, Petersdorf, RG, Wilson, JD, Martin, JB, Bauci, AS. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill Company, 1987: 1489–98.
27Adish, AA, Esrey, SA, Gyorkos, TW, Jean-Baptiste, J, Rojhani, A. Effect of consumption of food cooked in iron pots on iron status and growth of young chirldren: randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 712–16.
28Stephenson, L. Impact of Helminth Infection on Human Nutrition. London: Taylor & Francis, 1987.
29Mahiou, C, Frappaz, D, Freycon, MT, Freycon, F. Iron deficiency in infants and children (in French). Pediatrics 1992; 47: 551–5.
30Roodenburg, AJ. Iron supplementation during pregnancy. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 1995; 61: 65–71.
31Sharma, DC, Mathur, R. Correction of anemia and iron deficiency in vegetarians by administration of ascorbic acid. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1995; 39: 403–6.
32Mao, X, Yao, G. Effect of vitamin C supplementations on iron deficiency anemia in Chinese children. Biomed. Environ. Sci. 1992; 5: 125–9.
33Haghshenass, M, Mahloudij, M, Reinhold, JG, Mohammadi, N. Iron-deficiency in an Iranian population associated with high intakes of iron. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1972; 25: 1143–6.
34Newall, CA, Anderson, LA, Phillipson, JD. Fenugreek: Herbal Medicines, A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1996, 117–18.
35Hamdaoui, M, Hedhili, A, Doghri, T, Tritar, B. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal ‘couscous’ fed to healthy rats. Ann. Nutr. Metabol. 1994; 38: 226–31.
36Lawless, JW, Latham, M, Stephenson, LS, Kinoti, SN, Perlet, AM. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children. J. Nutr. 1994; 124: 645–54.
37Committee on Nutrition. Relationship between iron status and incidence of infection in infancy. Pediatrics 1978; 62: 246–50.
38Pollitt, E. Functional significance of the covariance between protein energy malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia. J. Nutr. 1995; 125: S2272–77.
39Burger, SE, Esrey, SA. Water and sanitation: health and nutrition benefits to children. In: Pinstrup-Anderson, P, Pelletier, D, Alderman, H, eds, Child Growth and Nutrition in Developing Countries: Priorities for Action. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995: 153–75.
40Ahmed, F, Mohiduzzam, M, Barua, S, et al. Effect of family size and income on the biochemical indices of urban school children of Bangladesh. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992; 46: 465–73.