Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Prevalence and strategies of energy drink, soda, processed snack, candy and restaurant product marketing on the online streaming platform Twitch

  • Catherine C Pollack (a1) (a2), Jason Kim (a2), Jennifer A Emond (a2) (a3), John Brand (a1) (a3), Diane Gilbert-Diamond (a1) (a3) and Travis D Masterson (a1) (a3)...

Abstract

Objective:

To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.

Design:

Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.

Setting:

Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.

Participants:

None.

Results:

There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.

Conclusions:

This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email Travis.D.Masterson@dartmouth.edu

References

Hide All
1.Hales, CM, Carroll, MD, Fryar, CDet al. (2017) Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults and Youth: United States, 2015–2016. Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services.
2.Boyland, EJ & Halford, JCG (2013) Television advertising and branding: effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children. Appetite 62, 236241.
3.Falbe, J, Willett, WC, Rosner, Bet al. (2014) Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 11731181.
4.Kenney, EL & Gortmaker, SL (2017) United States adolescents’ television, computer, videogame, smartphone, and tablet use: associations with sugary drinks, sleep, physical activity, and obesity. J Pediatr 182, 144149.
5.Freeman, B, Kelly, B, Baur, Let al. (2014) Digital junk: food and beverage marketing on Facebook. Am J Public Health 104, e56e64.
6.Nicholls, J (2012) Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media – current trends. Alcohol Alcohol 47, 486493.
7.Anderson, M & Jiang, J (2018) Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018. Washington, DC: Pew Charitable Trust.
8.Brü ndl, S & Hess, T (2016) Why do users broadcast? Examining individual motives and social capital on social live streaming platforms. Chiayi: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems.
9.Twitch (2018) Twitch 2017 Year in Review. Twitch. https://web.archive.org/web/20181218214411/https://www.twitch.tv/year/2017/factsheet.jpg (accessed August 2019).
10.Kim, E (2014) Amazon buys Twitch for $970 million in cash. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/amazon-buys-twitch-2014-8 (accessed August 2019).
11.Twitch Statistics & Charts. TwitchTracker. https://twitchtracker.com/statistics (accessed August 2019).
12.Gilbert, B (2018) Amazon’s streaming service Twitch is pulling in as many viewers as CNN and MSNBC. Business Insider. https://www.businessinsider.com/twitch-is-bigger-than-cnn-msnbc-2018-2 (accessed August 2019).
13.Quantcast (2017) Twitch.tv traffic and demographic statistics by Quantcast. https://web.archive.org/web/20170116183330/https://www.quantcast.com/twitch.tv (accessed August 2019).
14.Reames, M (2019) Why more and more brands are getting into the streaming game on Twitch. AdWeek. https://www.adweek.com/digital/why-more-and-more-brands-are-getting-into-the-streaming-game-on-twitch/ (accessed August 2019).
15.Twitch (2017) Twitch affiliate program. https://affiliate.twitch.tv/ (accessed August 2019).
16.Twitch.tv – Partners. Twitch.tv. https://www.twitch.tv/p/partners/ (accessed August 2019).
17.Montag A & Huddleston, Jr. T (2019) How gamer Tyler ‘Ninja’ Blevins went from working at a fast food joint to making almost $1 million a month playing Fortnite. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/01/04/ninja-blevins-from-a-fast-food-job-to-millionaire-fortnite-gamer.html (accessed August 2019).
18.Coates, AE, Hardman, CA, Halford, JCGet al. (2019) Social media influencer marketing and children’s food intake: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 143, e20182554.
19.Coates, AE, Hardman, CA, Halford, JCGet al. (2019) The effect of influencer marketing of food and a ‘protective’ advertising disclosure on children’s food intake. Pediatr Obes 14, e12540.
20.Marsden, A (2019) A beginner’s guide to twitch influencer marketing. Medium. https://medium.com/powerspike/a-beginners-guide-to-twitch-influencer-marketing-1d06f0cb59fb (accessed August 2019).
21.Handrahan, M (2019) Fortnite tops SuperData’s 2018 chart with $2.4 billion digital revenue. GamesIndustry.biz. https://www.gamesindustry.biz/articles/2019-01-16-fortnite-tops-2018-superdata-chart-with-usd2-4b-digital-revenue (accessed August 2019).
22.Schwartz, N (2014) 27 million people watched the ‘League of Legends’ World Championship (more than the World Series or NBA Finals). For The Win. https://ftw.usatoday.com/2014/12/league-of-legends-worlds-viewership-esports-world-series-nba-finals (accessed August 2019).
23.StreamHatchet (2018) Activation snapshot : the Doritos Bowl. StreamHatchet. https://blog.streamhatchet.com/activation-snapshot-the-doritos-bowl-945027e1ef58 (accessed August 2019).
24.Hultgren, K (2019) Five new esports brand partnerships to watch. EventMarketer. https://www.eventmarketer.com/article/new-esports-brand-partnerships-pay-attention-to/ (accessed August 2019).
25.Sjöblom, M & Hamari, J (2017) Why do people watch others play video games? An empirical study on the motivations of Twitch users. Comput Human Behav 75, 985996.
26.Coates, AE, Hardman, CA, Halford, JCGet al. (2019) Food and beverage cues featured in YouTube videos of social media influencers popular with children: an exploratory study. Front. Psychol. 10, 2142.
27.FACTS reports – UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. http://www.uconnruddcenter.org/facts-reports (accessed February 2020).
28.Harris, JL, Schwartz, MB & Brownell, KD (2011) Evaluating Sugary Drink Nutrition and Marketing to Youth, 232 p. Hartford, CT: Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.?
29.Harris, JL, Schwartz, MB, Brownell, KDet al. (2010) Fast Food FACTS: Evaluating Fast Food Nutrition and Marketing to Youth. Hartford, CT: Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.
30.Harris, JL, Schwartz, MB, Shehan, Cet al. (2015) Snack FACTS 2015 Evaluating Snack Food Nutrition and Marketing to Youth, 102 p. Hartford, CT: Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity.
31.Stream Hatchet (2019) Esports data and analytics – Stream Hatchet. Stream Hatchet. https://streamhatchet.com/ (accessed July 2019).
32.Van Lommel, M (2019) Overwatch League™ unveils brand sponsors ahead of 2019 season. MarketWatch. https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/overwatch-leaguetm-unveils-brand-sponsors-ahead-of-2019-season-2019-02-08 (accessed August 2019).
33.Statista (2018) U.S.: most eaten brands of chocolate and other candy 2018. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/276783/us-households-most-eaten-brands--of-chocolate-and-other-candy/ (accessed August 2019).
34.Neufeld, D (2019) Millennial Esports’ Data Segment Reports Increase in Streaming. Investing News Network. https://investingnews.com/daily/tech-investing/gaming-investing/esports-investing/esports-streaming-climbs-41-percent-across-industry/ (accessed September 2019).
35.Stout, H (2015) Selling the Young on ‘Gaming Fuel’. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/20/business/energy-drink-industry-under-scrutiny-looks-to-gamers-to-keep-sales-surging.html (accessed August 2019).
36.Team Gamma – G FUEL gamers, athletes, influencers & sponsors. G FUEL. https://gfuel.com/pages/team-gamma (accessed September 2019).
37.Reasons for ordering takeout food US 2018. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/959112/reasons-for-ordering-takeout-food-us/ (accessed October 2019).
38.Share of internet users who have food delivered US 2018. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/921887/internet-users-usage-of-food-delivery-services-to-deliver-meals-by-age-us/ (accessed October 2019).
39.Garst, A (2019) Coca-Cola signs multi-year deal sponsorship deal with Overwatch League. ESPN. https://www.espn.com/esports/story/_/page/overwatchbrandsponsornews/coca-cola-signs-multi-year-deal-sponsorship-deal-overwatch-league (accessed August 2019).
40.Chen, H (2018) Pepsi to sponsor Gamefy’s G-League Esports Tournament in Shanghai. The Esports Observer. https://esportsobserver.com/pepsi-gamefy-g-league/ (accessed August 2019).
41.The most followed Twitch streamers, September 2019. https://www.twitchmetrics.net/channels/follower (accessed September 2019).
42.Mediakix (2018) 8 best Twitch sponsorships: highlighting non-gaming brands. Mediakix.
43.Keefer, J (2019) Twitch to partner with Hershey’s and Reese’s brands for advertising and sponsorships. The Esports Observer. https://esportsobserver.com/twitch-hershey-twitchcon/ (accessed August 2019).
44.Federal Trade Commission (2009) Guides concerning the use of endorsements and testimonials in advertising. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission.
45.Practice ASA| C of A Food: HFSS Media Placement. https://www.asa.org.uk/advice-online/food-hfss-media-placement.html (accessed February 2020).

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Pollack et al. supplementary material
Appendix

 Word (6.7 MB)
6.7 MB

Prevalence and strategies of energy drink, soda, processed snack, candy and restaurant product marketing on the online streaming platform Twitch

  • Catherine C Pollack (a1) (a2), Jason Kim (a2), Jennifer A Emond (a2) (a3), John Brand (a1) (a3), Diane Gilbert-Diamond (a1) (a3) and Travis D Masterson (a1) (a3)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.