1.Grundy, SM, Cleeman, JI, Daniels, SRet al. (2005) Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement. Circulation 112, 2735–2752.
2.Steinberger, J, Daniels, SR, Eckel, RHet al. (2009) Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation 119, 628–647.
3.Gu, D, Reynolds, K, Wu, Xet al. (2005) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and overweight among adults in China. Lancet 365, 1398–1405.
4.Popkin, BM (2001) The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world. J Nutr 131, issue 3, 871S–873S.
5.Maire, B, Lioret, S, Gartner, Aet al. (2002) Nutritional transition and non-communicable diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries. Sante 12, 45–55.
6.Ntandou, G, Delisle, H, Agueh, Vet al. (2008) Physical activity and socioeconomic status explain rural–urban differences in obesity: a cross-sectional study in Benin (West Africa). Ecol Food Nutr 47, 313–337.
7.Ben Romdhane, H, Habib, H, Ali, Bet al. (2005) Epidemiological transition and health impact of cardiovascular disease in Tunisia. Tun Med 83, 2486–2497.
8.Harzallah, F, Alberti, H & Ben Khalifa, F (2006) The metabolic syndrome in an Arab population: a first look at the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Diabet Med 23, 441–444.
9.Bouguerra, R, Ben Salem, L, Alberti, Het al. (2006) Prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in the Tunisian adults: a population based study. Diabetes Metab 32, 215–221.
10.Allal-Elasmi, M, Haj Taieb, S, Hsairi, Met al. (2010) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, main characteristics and association with socio-economic status in adults living in Great Tunis. Diabetes Metab 36, 204–208.
11.Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (2001) Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285, 2486–2497.
12.Rguibi, M & Belahsen, R (2004) Metabolic syndrome among Moroccan Sahraoui adult women. Am J Hum Biol 16, 598–601.
13.Fezeu, L, Balkau, B, Kengne, APet al. (2007) Metabolic syndrome in a sub-Saharan African setting: central obesity may be the key determinant. Atherosclerosis 193, 70–76.
14.Ford, ES (2004) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in US populations. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 33, 333–350.
15.Kraja, AT, Rao, DC, Weder, ABet al. (2005) An evaluation of the metabolic syndrome in a large multi-ethnic study: the family blood pressure program. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2, 17.
16.Miccoli, R, Bianchi, C, Odoguardi, Let al. (2005) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Italian adults according to ATP III definition. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 15, 250–254.
17.Oh, JY, Hong, YS, Sung, YAet al. (2004) Prevalence and factor analysis of metabolic syndrome in an urban Korean population. Diabetes Care 27, 2027–2032.
18.Alberti, KG, Zimmet, P & Shaw, J (2006) Metabolic syndrome – a new worldwide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med 23, 469–480.
19.Ford, ES & Giles, WH (2003) A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions. Diabetes Care 26, 575–581.
20.Cheung, BM, Ong, KL, Man, YBet al. (2006) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 according to different defining criteria. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 8, 562–570.
21.Velásquez-Meléndez, G, Gazzinelli, A, Côrrea-Oliveira, Ret al. (2007) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural area of Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J 125, 155–162.
22.Jaber, LA, Brown, MB, Hammad, Aet al. (2004) The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Arab Americans. Diabetes Care 27, 234–238.
23.Yusuf, S, Hawken, S, Ounpuu, Set al. (2005) Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case–control study. Lancet 366, 1640–1649.
24.Wang, Y, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJet al. (2005) Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 555–563.
25.Ghannem, H (2006) The challenge of preventing cardiovascular disease in Tunisia. Prev Chronic Dis 3, A13.
26.Lasky, D, Becerra, E, Boto, Wet al. (2002) Obesity and gender differences in the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uganda. Nutrition 18, 417–421.
27.Catalano, PM (2003) Obesity and pregnancy – the propagation of a vicious cycle? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 3505–3506.
28.Park, HS, Oh, SW, Cho, Set al. (2004) The metabolic syndrome and associated lifestyle factors among South Korean adults. Int J Epidemiol 33, 328–336.
29.Weng, X, Liu, Y, Ma, Jet al. (2007) An urban–rural comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Eastern China. Public Health Nutr 10, 131–136.
30.Das, M, Pal, S & Ghosh, A (2008) Rural urban differences of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adult Asian Indians. Am J Hum Biol 20, 440–445.
31.Ntandou, G, Delisle, H, Agueh, Vet al. (2009) Abdominal obesity explains the positive rural–urban gradient in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Benin, West Africa. Nutr Res 29, 180–189.
32.Mittal, BV & Singh, AK (2010) Hypertension in the developing world: challenges and opportunities. Am J Kidney Dis 55, 590–598.
33.Tamashiro, KL (2011) Metabolic syndrome: links to social stress and socioeconomic status. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1231, 46–55.
34.da Silveira, VM, Horta, BL, Gigante, DPet al. (2010) Metabolic syndrome in the 1982 Pelotas cohort: effect of contemporary lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 54, 390–397.
35.Lee, WY, Jung, CH, Park, JSet al. (2005) Effects of smoking, alcohol, exercise, education, and family history on the metabolic syndrome as defined by the ATP III. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 67, 70–77.
36.Steemburgo, T, Dall'Alba, V, Grosss, JLet al. (2007) Dietary factors and metabolic syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 51, 1425–1433.
37.Válek, J & Vlasáková, Z (1997) The metabolic syndrome, its heredity, methods of detection and clinical significance. Vnitr Lek 43, 566–573.
38.Hunt, KJ, Heiss, G, Sholinsky, PDet al. (2000) Familial history of metabolic disorders and the multiple metabolic syndrome: the NHLBI family heart study. Genet Epidemiol 19, 395–409.
39.Silva, TCBF, Barrett-Connor, E, Ramires, JAFet al. (2008) Obesity, estrone, and coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 59, 242–248.
40.Al-Azzawi, F & Palacios, S (2009) Hormonal changes during menopause. Maturitas 63, 135–137.
41.Kalish, GM, Barrett-Connor, E, Laughlin, GAet al. (2003) Association of endogenous sex hormones and insulin resistance among postmenopausal women: results from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Intervention Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 1646–1652.
42.Eshtiaghi, R, Esteghamati, A & Nakhjavani, M (2010) Menopause is an independent predictor of metabolic syndrome in Iranian women. Maturitas 65, 262–266.
43.Janssen, I, Powell, LH, Crawford, Set al. (2008) Menopause and the metabolic syndrome: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Arch Intern Med 168, 1568–1575.
44.Loucks, EB, Rehkopf, DH, Thurston, RCet al. (2007) Socioeconomic disparities in metabolic syndrome differ by gender: evidence from NHANES III. Ann Epidemiol 17, 9–26.
45.Park, MJ, Yun, KE, Lee, GEet al. (2007) A cross-sectional study of socioeconomic status and the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Ann Epidemiol 17, 320–326.
46.Heller, RF, Williams, H & Sittampalam, Y (1984) Social class and ischemic heart disease: use of the male:female ratio to identify possible occupational hazards. J Epidemiol Community Health 38, 198–202.
47.Thurston, RC, Kubzansky, LD, Kawachi, Iet al. (2005) Is the association between socioeconomic position and coronary heart disease stronger in women than in men? Am J Epidemiol 162, 57–65.
48.Winkleby, MA, Jatulis, DE, Frank, Eet al. (1992) Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Am J Public Health 82, 816–820.