1.Lara, M, Gamboa, C, Kahramanian, MI, Morales, LS & Hayes-Bautista, DE (2005) Acculturation and Latino Health in the United States: a review of the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annu Rev Public Health 26, 367–397.
2.Williams, DR & Collins, C (1995) US socioeconomic and racial-differences in health-patterns and explanations. Annu Rev Public Health 21, 349–386.
3.Arcia, E, Skinner, M, Bailey, D & Correa, V (2001) Models of acculturation and health behaviors among Latino immigrants to the US. Soc Sci Med 53, 41–53.
4.Berry, JW (1997) Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Appl Psychol 46, 5–34.
5.Hunt, LM, Schneider, S & Corner, B (2004) Should acculturation be a variable in health research? A critical review of research on US Hispanics. Soc Sci Med 59, 973–986.
6.Sampson, RJ, Raudenbush, SW & Earls, F (1997) Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277, 918–924.
7.Popkin, BM, Duffey, K & Gordon-Larsen, P (2005) Environmental influences on food choice, physical activity and energy balance. Psychol Behav 86, 603–613.
8.Cohen, DA, Ashwood, JS, Scott, MM, Overton, A, Evenson, KR, Staten, LK, Porter, D, McKenzie, TL & Catellier, D (2006) Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 118, 1381–1389.
9.Frank, LD, Sallis, JF, Conway, TL, Chapman, JE, Saelens, BE & Bachman, W (2006) Many pathways from land use to health – associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. J Am Plann Assoc 72, 75–87.
10.Moore, LV & Roux, AVD (2006) Association of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. Am J Public Health 96, 325–331.
11.Gordon, M (1964) Assimilation in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press.
12.Massey, DS (1985) Ethnic residential segregation: a theoretical synthesis and empirical review. Sociol Soc Res 69, 315–350.
13.Palloni, A & Arias, E (2004) Paradox lost: explaining the Hispanic adult mortality advantage. Demography 41, 385–415.
14.Sorlie, PD, Backlund, E, Johnson, NJ & Rogot, E (1993) Mortality by Hispanic status in the United States. JAMA 270, 2464–2468.
15.Hummer, RA, Rogers, RG, Nam, CB & LeClere, FB (1999) Race/ethnicity, nativity, and US adult mortality. Soc Sci Q 80, 136–153.
16.Singh, GK & Siahpush, M (2002) Ethnic-immigrant differentials in health behaviors, morbidity and cause-specific mortality in the United States: an analysis of two national databases. Hum Biol 74, 83–109.
17.Eschbach, K, Kuo, YF & Goodwin, JS (2006) Ascertainment of Hispanic ethnicity on California death certificates: implications for the explanation of the Hispanic mortality advantage. Am J Public Health 96, 2209–2215.
18.Eschbach, K, Stimpson, JP, Kuo, YF & Goodwin, JS (2007) Mortality of foreign-born and US-born Hispanic adults at younger ages: a re-examination of recent patterns. Am J Public Health 97, 1297–1304.
19.Elo, IT, Turra, CM, Kestenbaum, B & Ferguson, RF (2004) Mortality among elderly Hispanics in the United States: past evidence and new results. Demography 41, 109–128.
20.Markides, KS & Coreil, J (1986) The health of Hispanics in the southwestern United States: an epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Rep 101, 253–265.
21.Franzini, L, Ribble, JC & Keddie, AM (2001) Understanding the Hispanic paradox. Ethn Dis 11, 496–518.
22.Markides, KS & Eschbach, K (2005) Aging, migration, and mortality: current status of research on the Hispanic paradox. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 60B, Spec. No. 2, 68–75.
23.Aneshensel, CS & Sucoff, CA (1996) The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. J Health Soc Behav 37, 293–310.
24.LeClere, F, Rogers, RG & Peters, KD (1997) Ethnicity and mortality in the United States: individual and community correlates. Soc Forces 76, 169–198.
25.Eschbach, K, Ostir, GV, Patel, KV, Markides, KS & Goodwin, JS (2004) Neighborhood context and mortality among older Mexican Americans: is there a barrio advantage? Am J Public Health 94, 1807–1812.
26.Eschbach, K, Mahnken, JD & Goodwin, JS (2005) Neighborhood composition and incidence of cancer among Hispanics in the United States. Cancer 103, 1036–1044.
27.Ostir, GV, Eschbach, K, Markides, KS & Goodwin, JS (2003) Neighborhood composition and depressive symptoms among older Mexican Americans. J Epidemiol Community Health 57, 987–992.
28.Patel, KV, Eschbach, K, Rudkin, L, Peek, MK & Markides, KS (2003) Neighborhood context and self-rated health in older Mexican Americans. Ann Epidemiol 13, 620–628.
29.Bond Huie, SA, Hummer, RA & Rogers, RG (2002) Individual and contextual risks of death among race and ethnic groups in the United States. J Health Soc Behav 43, 359–381.
30.Inagami, S, Borrell, LN, Wong, MD, Fang, J, Shapiro, MF & Asch, SM (2006) Residential segregation and Latino, black, and white mortality in New York City. J Urban Health 83, 406–420.
31.Cagney, KA, Browning, CR & Wallace, DM (2007) The Latino paradox in neighborhood context: the case of asthma and other respiratory conditions. Am J Public Health 97, 919–925.
32.Lee, MA & Ferraro, KF (2007) Neighborhood residential segregation and physical health among Hispanic Americans: good, bad, or benign? J Health Soc Behav 48, 131–148.
33.Frank, R, Cerda, M & Rendon, M (2007) Barrios and burbs: residential context and health-risk behaviors among Angeleno adolescents. J Health Soc Behav 48, 283–300.
34.National Center for Health Statistics (1994) Plan and operation of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–94. Series 1: Programs and collection procedures. Vital Health Stat 1 issue 32, 1–407.
35.Woteki, CE, Briefel, R, Hitchcock, D, Ezzatfa, T & Maurer, K (1990) Selection of nutrition status indicators for field surveys: the NHANES III design. J Nutr 120, 1440–1445.
38.Thompson, FE & Byers, T (1994) Dietary assessment resource manual. J Nutr 124, Suppl., 2245S–2317S.
39.Kant, AK (2002) Nature of dietary reporting by adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 315–327.
40.US Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics (1996) Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994, NHANES II Laboratory Data File. CD-ROM, Series 11, No. 1A. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
41.Dixon, LB, Sundquist, J & Winkleby, M (2000) Differences in energy, nutrient and food intakes in a US sample of Mexican-American women and men: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Am J Epidemiol 152, 548–557.
42.Shah, M, Coyle, Y, Kavanaugh, A, Adams-Huet, B & Lipsky, PE (2004) Focus group assessment of culturally specific cholesterol-lowering menus for Mexican Americans. Int Electron J Health Educ 7, 9–19.
43.Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes & the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
44.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR; available at http://www.dietandcancerreport.org
45.Gonzalez, CA (2006) Nutrition and cancer: the current epidemiological evidence. Br J Nutr 96, Suppl. 1, S42–S45.
46.Bazzano, LA, He, J, Ogden, LG, Loria, CM, Vupputuri, S, Myers, L & Whelton, PK (2002) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the First National Health and Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 93–99.
47.Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P, Hercberg, S & Dallongeville, J (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 136, 2588–2593.
48.He, FJ, Nowson, CA & MacGregor, GA (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367, 320–326.
49.Skinner, CN, Holt, D & Smith, TMF (editors) (1989) Analysis of Complex Surveys. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
51.Kawachi, I & Berkman, LF (2003) Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford University Press.
53.Kant, AK, Graubard, BI & Schatzkin, A (2004) Dietary patterns predict mortality in a national cohort: The National Health Interview Surveys, 1987 and 1992. J Nutr 134, 1793–1799.
54.Kant, AK, Schatzkin, A, Graubard, BI & Schrairer, C (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 283, 2109–2115.
55.Liu, S, Lee, I-M, Ajani, U, Cole, SR, Buring, JE & Manson, JE (2001) Intake of vegetables rich in carotenoids and risk of coronary heart disease in men: Physicians’ Health study. Int J Epidemiol 30, 130–135.
56.Forman, JP, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ & Curhan, GC (2005) Folate intake and risk of incident hypertension among US women. JAMA 293, 320–329.
57.Hung, H-C, Joshipura, KJ, Jiang, R, Hu, FB, Hunter, D, Smith-Warner, SA, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (2004) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1577–1584.
58.Hu, FB, Rimm, EB, Stampfer, MJ, Ascherio, A, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912–921.
59.Millen, BE, Quatromoni, PA, Nam, B-H, O’Horo, CE, Polak, JF & D’Agostino, RB (2002) Dietary patterns and the odds of carotid atherosclerosis in women: the Framingham Nutrition Studies. Prev Med 35, 540–547.
60.Riboli, E & Norat, T (2003) Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 78, Suppl., 559S–569S.
61.Vainio, H & Weiderpass, E (2006) Fruit and vegetables in cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer 54, 111–142.
62.Pavia, M, Pileggi, C, Nobile, CG & Angelillo, IF (2006) Association between fruit and vegetable consumption and oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1126–1134.
63.Bodor, JN, Rose, D, Farley, TA, Swalm, C & Scott, SK (2008) Neighbourhood fruit and vegetable availability and consumption: the role of small food stores in an urban environment. Public Health Nutr 11, 413–420.
64.Crimmins, EM, Kim, JK, Alley, DE, Karlamangla, A & Seeman, T (2007) Hispanic paradox in biological risk profiles. Am J Public Health 97, 1305–1310.
65.Turra, CM & Goldman, N (2007) Socioeconomic differences in mortality among US adults: insights into the Hispanic paradox. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 62, S184–S192.
66.Turra, CM & Elo, IT (2008) The impact of salmon bias on the Hispanic mortality advantage: new evidence from Social Security data. Popul Res Policy Rev (online DOI 10.1007/s11113-008-9087-4).
67.Guendelman, S & Abrams, B (1995) Dietary intake among Mexican-American women: generational differences and a comparison with white non-Hispanic women. Am J Public Health 85, 20–25.
68.Montez, JK & Eschbach, K (2008) Country of birth and language are uniquely associated with intakes of fat, fiber, and fruits and vegetables among Mexican-American women in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 473–480.
69.Mazur, RE, Marquis, GS & Jensen, HH (2003) Diet and food insufficiency among Hispanic youths: acculturation and socioeconomic factors in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 1120–1127.
70.Sundquist, J & Winkleby, M (2000) Country of birth, acculturation status and abdominal obesity in a national sample of Mexican American women and men. Int J Epidemiol 29, 470–477.
71.Perez-Escamilla, R & Putnik, P (2007) The role of acculturation in nutrition, lifestyle, and incidence of type 2 diabetes among Latinos. J Nutr 137, 860–870.
72.Unger, JB, Reynolds, K, Shakib, S, Spruijt-Metz, D, Sun, P & Johnson, CA (2004) Acculturation, physical activity, and fast-food consumption among Asian-American and Hispanic adolescents. J Community Health 29, 467–481.
73.Galvez, MP, Morland, K, Raines, C, Kobil, J, Siskind, J, Godbold, J & Brenner, B (2008) Race and food store availability in an inner-city neighbourhood. Public Health Nutr 11, 624–631.
74.Kolonel, LN, Hankin, JH, Whittemore, AS et al. (2000) Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 795–804.
75.Correa, P (1981) Epidemiological correlations between diet and cancer frequency. Cancer Res 41, 3685–3690.
76.Kabagampe, EK, Baylin, A, Ruiz-Narvaez, E, Silesw, X & Campos, H (2005) Decreased consumption of dried mature beans is positively associated with urbanization and nonfatal myocardial infarction. J Nutr 135, 1770–1775.
77.Hughes, JS, Ganthavorn, C & Wilson-Sanders, S (1997) Dry beans inhibit azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats. J Nutr 127, 2328–2333.
78.Diaz-Batalla, L, Widholm, JM, Fahey, GC, Castano-Tostado, E & Paredes-Lopez, O (2006) Chemical components with health implications in wild and cultivated Mexican common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 54, 2045–2052.
79.Espinosa-Alonso, LG, Lygin, A, Widholm, JM, Valverde, ME & Paredes-Lopez, O (2006) Polyphenols in wild and weedy Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 54, 4436–4444.
80.Mazur, WM, Duke, JA, Wahala, K, Rasku, S & Adlercreutz, H (1998) Isoflavonoids and lignans in legumes: nutritional and health aspects in humans. Nutr Biochem 9, 193–200.
81.Midorikawa, K, Murata, M, Oikawa, S, Hiraku, Y & Kawanishi, S (2001) Protective effect of phytic acid on oxidative DNA damage with reference to cancer chemoprevention. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288, 552–557.
82.Gonzales de Mejia, E, Castano-Tostado, E & Loarca-Pina, G (1999) Antimutagenic effects of natural phenolic compounds in beans. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 441, 1–9.
83.Mori, A, Lehmann, S, O’Kelly, J, Kumagai, T, Desmond, JC, Pervan, M, McBride, WH, Kizaki, M & Koeffler, HP (2006) Capsaicin, a component of red peppers, inhibits the growth of androgen-independent, p53 mutant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 66, 3222–3229.
84.Ito, K, Nakazato, T, Yamato, K, Miyakawa, Y, Yamada, T, Hozumi, N, Segawa, K, Ikeda, Y & Kizaki, M (2004) Induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells by homovanilic acid derivative, capsaicin, through oxidative stress. Implications of phosphorylation of p53 at ser-15 residue by reactive oxygen species. Cancer Res 64, 1071–1078.
85.Kim, JD, Kim, JM, Pyo, JO, Kim, SY, Kim, BS, Yu, R & Han, IS (1997) Capsaicin can alter the expression of tumor forming-related genes which might be followed by induction of apoptosis of a Korean stomach cancer cell line, SNU-1. Cancer Lett 120, 235–241.
86.Jung, MY, Kang, HJ & Moon, A (2001) Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 hepatocarcinoma cells involves Bel-2-down-regulation and caspase-3 activation. Cancer Lett 165, 139–145.
87.O’Kennedy, N, Crosbie, L, van Lieshout, M, Broom, JI, Webb, DJ & Duttaroy, AK (2006) Effects of antiplatelet components of tomato extract on platelet function in vitro and ex vivo: a time-course cannulation study in healthy humans. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 570–579.
88.Muller, N, Alteheld, B & Stehle, P (2003) Tomato products and lycopene supplements: mandatory components in nutritional treatment of cancer patients? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 6, 657–660.
89.Giovannucci, E, Rimm, EB, Liu, Y, Stampfer, MJ & Willett, WC (2002) A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 94, 391–398.
90.Bello-Perez, LA, Osorio-Diaz, P, Agama-Acevedo, E, Solorza-Feria, J, Toro-Vazquez, JF & Paredes-Lopez, O (2003) Chemical and physicochemical properties of dried wet masa and dry masa flour. J Sci Food Agric 83, 408–412.
91.Martinez-Flores, HE, Figueroa, JDC, Martinez-Bustos, F, Gonzalez-Hernandez, J, Rodriguez Garcia, ME, Banos Lopez, AML & Garnica-Romo, MG (2002) Physical properties and composition of femurs of rat fed with diets based on corn tortillas made from different processes. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53, 155–162.
92.De la Parra, C, Serna Saldivar, SO & Liu, RH (2007) Effect of processing on the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of corn for production of masa, tortillas, and tortilla chips. J Agric Food Chem 55, 4177–4183.