1.Bener, A (2006) Prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in Qatari adolescents. Food Nutr Bull 27, 39–45.
2.Deshmukh-Taskar, P, Nicklas, TA, Morales, M, Yang, SJ, Zakeri, I & Berenson, GS (2006) Tracking of overweight status from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 48–57.
3.James, PT (2004) Obesity: the worldwide epidemic. Clin Dermatol 22, 276–280.
4.Kosti, RI & Panagiotakos, DB (2006) The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents in the world. Cent Eur J Public Health 14, 151–159.
5.Salazar-Martinez, E, Allen, B, Fernandez-Ortega, C, Torres-Mejia, G, Galal, O & Lazcano-Ponce, E (2006) Overweight and obesity status among adolescents from Mexico and Egypt. Arch Med Res 37, 535–542.
6.Wang, Y & Lobstein, T (2006) Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 1, 11–25.
7.Berenson, GS, Srinivasan, SR, Bao, W, Newman, WP III, Tracy, RE & Wattigney, WA (1998) Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338, 1650–1656.
8.Freedman, DS, Khan, LK, Dietz, WH, Srinivasan, SR & Berenson, GS (2001) Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 108, 712–718.
9.Freedman, DS, Dietz, WH, Tang, R, Mensah, GA, Bond, MG, Urbina, EM, Srinivasan, S & Berenson, GS (2004) The relation of obesity throughout life to carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 159–166.
10.Fung, TT, Rimm, EB, Spiegelman, D, Rifai, N, Tofler, GH, Willett, WC & Hu, HB (2001) Association between dietary patterns and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 61–67.
11.Jafar, TH, Chaturvedi, N & Pappas, G (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population. CMAJ 175, 1071–1077.
12.Okosun, IS, Cooper, RS, Rotimi, CN, Osotimehin, B & Forrester, T (1998) Association of waist circumference with risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in Nigerians, Jamaicans, and African-Americans. Diabetes Care 21, 1836–1842.
13.Wilks, R, Bennett, F, Forrester, T & McFarlane-Anderson, N (1998) Chronic diseases: the new epidemic. West Indian Med J 47, Suppl. 4, 40–44.
14.Forrester, T, Wilks, R, Bennett, F, McFarlane-Anderson, N, McGee, D, Cooper, R & Fraser, H (1996) Obesity in the Caribbean. Ciba Found Symp 201, 17–26.
15.Jackson, M, Walker, S, Forrester, T, Cruickshank, JK & Wilks, R (2003) Social and dietary determinants of body mass index of adult Jamaicans of African origin. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 621–627.
16.Gulliford, MC (1996) Epidemiological transition in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies 1953–1992. Int J Epidemiol 25, 357–365.
17.Jackson, M, Samms-Vaughan, M & Ashley, D (2002) Nutritional status of 11–12-year-old Jamaican children: coexistence of under- and overnutrition in early adolescence. Public Health Nutr 5, 281–288.
18.Wilks, R, Zohoori, N, Ashley, D & Figueroa, P (2000) The Jamaican Healthy Lifestyle Survey. Kingston:Epidemiology Research Unit, University of the West Indies and Ministry of Health.
19.Rajeshwari, R, Yang, SJ, Nicklas, TA & Berenson, GS (2005) Secular trends in children’s sweetened-beverage consumption (1973 to 1994): the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 208–214.
20.Nicklas, TA, Demory-Luce, D, Yang, SJ, Baranowski, T, Zakeri, I & Berenson, G (2004) Children’s food consumption patterns have changed over two decades (1973–1994): The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1127–1140.
21.Birch, LL & Fisher, JO (1998) Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101, 539–549.
22.Carrera, PM, Gao, X & Tucker, KL (2007) A study of dietary patterns in the Mexican-American population and their association with obesity. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 1735–1742.
23.Janssen, I, Katzmarzyk, PT, Boyce, WF, King, MA & Pickett, W (2004) Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. J Adolesc Health 35, 360–367.
24.Nicklas, TA, Yang, SJ, Baranowski, T, Zakeri, I & Berenson, G (2003) Eating patterns and obesity in children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med 25, 9–16.
25.Bowman, SA, Gortmaker, SL, Ebbeling, CB, Pereira, MA & Ludwig, DS (2004) Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics 113, 112–118.
26.Bedogni, G, Iughetti, L, Ferrari, M, Malavolti, M, De Simone, M, Fiori, G, Battistini, N & Bernasconi, S (2002) Association of waist circumference and body mass index with fasting blood insulin in severely obese children: a cross-sectional study. Diabetes Nutr Metab 15, 160–164.
27.Gibson, S & Neate, D (2007) Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58, 445–460.
28.Ritchie, LD, Spector, P, Stevens, MJ, Schmidt, MM, Schreiber, GB, Striegel-Moore, RH, Wang, MC & Crawford, PB (2007) Dietary patterns in adolescence are related to adiposity in young adulthood in black and white females. J Nutr 137, 399–406.
29.Phillips, SM, Bandini, LG, Naumova, EN, Cyr, H, Colclough, S, Dietz, WH & Must, A (2004) Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res 12, 461–472.
30.STATIN (2001) Demographic Statistic. Kingston:Statistical Institute of Jamaica.
31.Freedman, DS, Khan, LK, Serdula, MK, Dietz, WH, Srinivasan, SR & Berenson, GS (2005) The relation of childhood BMI to adult adiposity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 115, 22–27.
32.Israeli, E, Schochat, T, Korzets, Z, Tekes-Manova, D, Bernheim, J & Golan, E (2006) Prehypertension and obesity in adolescents: a population study. Am J Hypertens 19, 708–712.
33.Wilks, R, Younger, N, McFarlane, S, Francis, D, van den Broeck, J (2007) Jamaica Youth Risk and Resiliency Behaviour Survey 2006. Community-based Survey on Risks and Resiliency Behaviours of 15–19 year olds, 2007. http://www.cpc.unc.edu/measure/publications/pdf/tr-07-64.pdf (accessed December 2007).
34.Cole, TJ & Green, PJ (1992) Smoothing reference centile curves: the LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med 11, 1305–1319.
35.Reilly, JJ (2006) Obesity in childhood and adolescence: evidence based clinical and public health perspectives. Postgrad Med J 82, 429–437.
36.Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM & Dietz, WH (2006) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1243.
37.Han, TS, van Leer, EM, Seidell, JC & Lean, ME (1995) Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ 311, 1401–1405.
38.Pan American Health Organization (1997) The Caribbean Youth Survey 1997. Washington, DC:Pan American Health Organization.
39.Genuth, S, Alberti, KG, Bennett, P et al. (2003) Follow-up report on the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 26, 3160–3167.
40.World Health Organization (2006) Definition and Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus and Intermediate Hyperglycaemia. Geneva: WHO.
42.Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD, Curtin, LR, McDowell, MA, Tabak, CJ & Flegal, KM (2006) Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 295, 1549–1555.
43.Rio-Navarro, BE, Velazquez-Monroy, O, Sanchez-Castillo, CP, Lara-Esqueda, A, Berber, A, Fanghanel, G, Violante, R, Tapia-Conyer, R & James, WP (2004) The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in Mexican children. Obes Res 12, 215–223.
44.Bovet, P, Chiolero, A, Madeleine, G, Gabriel, A & Stettler, N (2006) Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004. Int J Pediatr Obes 1, 120–128.
45.Lien, N, Kumar, BN & Lien, L (2007) Overweight among adolescents in Oslo. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 127, 2254–2258.
46.Smith, BJ, Phongsavan, P, Havea, D, Halavatau, V & Chey, T (2007) Body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviours among adolescents in the Kingdom of Tonga. Public Health Nutr 10, 137–144.
47.French, SA, Story, M & Jeffery, RW (2001) Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health 22, 309–335.
48.Flynn, MA, McNeil, DA, Maloff, B, Mutasingwa, D, Wu, M, Ford, C & Tough, SC (2006) Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: a synthesis of evidence with ‘best practice’ recommendations. Obes Rev 7, Suppl. 1, 7–66.
49.Janssen, I, Boyce, WF, Simpson, K & Pickett, W (2006) Influence of individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic status on obesity, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity in Canadian adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 139–145.
50.O’Connor, TM, Yang, SJ & Nicklas, TA (2006) Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. Pediatrics 118, e1010–e1018.
51.Demory-Luce, D, Morales, M, Nicklas, T, Baranowski, T, Zakeri, I & Berenson, G (2004) Changes in food group consumption patterns from childhood to young adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 1684–1691.